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DREAMZ INFRA

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Consumer complaints and reviews about DREAMZ INFRA

sohan_2014
 
May 8, 2014

Dreamz infra- Cheaters

Dreamz Infra, Bangalore swindle the buyers money. They are very big fraud threatening to Bangalore real estate market . They have come with new ideas in Indian real estate market, how to cheat the customers and escape from the legal actions, I will explain you the truth how they are cheating customers. First they will take your booking amount and start their construction, but it will be delayed and no legal approvals for the projects. Once you find all this stories and want to cancel the flat. But they will tell you to wait for 60 working days to get your payment. They will start selling the same flat to other customer and take booking amount. Then if you force them by legal notice to give your money back. Then they will return your money. It could have taken at least 12 months to return your money. You have lost your rate of interest on the money, but they have taken the rate of interest of yours. What will happen to them if every one comes knows truth ? They are using many new tricks in Indian real estate market to cheat the buyers. One important note: You will loose all your money. Now its up to you….
pratibha256
 
Mar 2, 2013

My satisfaction in Dreamz.

I would like to thank you for the wonderful offer which has given to me much convincing price with good amenities compared to the other branded properties developers in Bangalore. Where I was not in a position to buy a flat in Bangalore. Once I saw an add about DreamzGk and I was very much impressed by the price and location and I went and visited Dreamz Gk and I had conversation with the ASM and I really liked there. Commitments which they have given to me with our reasonable price. The only thing I can say they are up to there commitments and they do good services to their customers, which I had a fantastic experience in DreamzGK.
Thanks
Pratibha Singh
9448103719
pratibha256
 
Mar 2, 2013

My satisfaction in Dreamz

I would like to thank you for the wonderful offer which has given to me much convincing price with good amenities compared to the other branded properties developers in Bangalore. Where I was not in a position to buy a flat in Bangalore. Once I saw an add about DreamzGk and I was very much impressed by the price and location and I went and visited Dreamz Gk and I had conversation with the ASM and I really liked there. Commitments which they have given to me with our reasonable price. The only thing I can say they are up to there commitments and they do good services to their customers, which I had a fantastic experience in DreamzGK.
Thanks
Pratibha Singh
9448103719
sreenatpppp
 
Jul 5, 2012

Dreamz gk cheap tricks

Scroll at the bottom for complaint/comments dated on 19th Feb 2012, 13th Feb 2012, 5th Feb 2012
of this link:
http://www.complaintboard.in/complaints-reviews/dreamz-infra-l171054/page/35

Why are there so many comments from the same user with multiple names in different comments telling this is a great company and they have done a superb job. Someone is trying to smother the genuine comments and make the fake comments look as though there is no fraud going on.

Apply you common sense and do your homework before booking the houses.
Check for the following:
1) Are they the builders for the houses/apartments they are showing. "Dreamz GK Infra Private Ltd"?
2) Are they showing empty dug up lands and claiming they have started the work and it will come up in the next 3-6 months?
3) Ask for legal documents, atleast photocopies and do a checkup with 3rd party lawyer, not of their connection, are they willing to do this?

Be careful. You are warned. Feedback, fraud check very very important.

Rgds,
Someone concerned
p.s: anyone finding this comment under hundreds of other comments, please copy the entire comment and submit it again, so it appears at the top again.
shekhs269@gmail.com
 
Jun 8, 2012

BIGGEST fraud

Dear friends ,

i m an ex employee of this company , and i would like to tell u some thing special interesting things which u ppl dont know about this company.

first of all in above posts the id BHUSHAN SHASHI who has posted postive thoughts is president of this company , then RAVI is a Vice president of this company , now u must have came to know y they have posted positive thoughts . . . .

this company dont have any proper documents for their properties , their all land is in litigatitions, what ever documents they r showing u are fake documents which has been prepared by their own lawyers . last month on they have launched a project exactly opposite to MANYATA tech park ( hebbal) the time when they launched that time in the walls the owner name was K. RAVI , but now if u ll c the name has been changed in MANJUNATH. This person has given police complaint for this and from that day they have stopped taking booking for this project , and for all customers they r telling that it has been FULLY SOLD OUT.
After this recently they have launched 1 more priject in RAMMURTHYNAGAR their also the land owner has removed all their board and throwed it in 1 side.

I SUGGEST u DONT purchase any properties from this company , here all frauds.

when u will ask them in office about their company complaints , that time they will give u 100s of reasons and they will examples of prestige , wipro and many other companies and by using their marketing techniques they will just divert your mind.

ITS a biggest fake and fraud company , they will even show u some fake documents of ISO certified, these al r fake .,,, when ever u will ask sales agreement or land registration documents they will show u some other lands document.
so be very careful in this.

If you are well educated , then once just go in their office and and just speak with any of their higher authorities in little high level English or normal English only , u will automatically come to know about their level from their sentence formation......
they don't know simple basic sentence formation or grammar also
If u don't believe me then u can check out with any of their general manager or vice president or presidents, ... most of them r illiterates except few . . . .
ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<span dir="auto">Subrata</span>
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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><p><b>Subrata</b> (<a href="/wiki/Hindi" title="Hindi" class="mw-redirect">Hindi</a>: सबराता, <a href="/wiki/Bengali_language" title="Bengali language">Bengali</a>: সুব্রত), also <b>Subroto</b>, is a common name in India, especially among <a href="/wiki/Bengali_people" title="Bengali people">Bengali people</a>. The name is also somewhat common in Indonesia, as many people have Sanskrit derived names there as well (in Java, <i>Subroto</i> is more common due to Javanese spelling structure of changing 'a' into an 'o'. It means "devoted to what is right", <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://www.truptis.com/baby-names/s-baby-boy-name.htm">[1]</a> It can refer to a number of people-</p>
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<li>Subrata of Magadha, King c. <a href="/wiki/1200s_BC" title="1200s BC">1210 BC</a> – <a href="/wiki/1140s_BC" title="1140s BC">1150 BC</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subrata_Roy" title="Subrata Roy">Subrata Roy</a> - Chairman and Managing Worker, Sahara India Group, India</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subroto_Bagchi" title="Subroto Bagchi">Subroto Bagchi</a> - Chief Operatiing Officer of <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://www.mindtree.com">[2]</a><a href="/wiki/MindTree_Consulting" title="MindTree Consulting" class="mw-redirect">MindTree Consulting</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subrata_Bose" title="Subrata Bose">Subrata Bose</a> - Bengali politician</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subrata_Chowdhury" title="Subrata Chowdhury">Subrata Chowdhury</a> - Tripuran Cricketer</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gatot_Soebroto" title="Gatot Soebroto">Gatot Soebroto</a> - {pronounced 'Subroto') Former Indonesian general.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subroto_Guha" title="Subroto Guha" class="mw-redirect">Subroto Guha</a> - Indian cricketer</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/H._Subrata" title="H. Subrata">H. Subrata</a> - Indonesian media magnate</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subrata_Mitra" title="Subrata Mitra">Subrata Mitra</a> - Indian cinematographer</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subroto_Mukerjee" title="Subroto Mukerjee">Subroto Mukerjee</a> - the first Chief of staff of Indian Air Force</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dr._Subroto" title="Dr. Subroto" class="mw-redirect">Dr. Subroto</a> - Former Secretary General of <a href="/wiki/OPEC" title="OPEC">OPEC</a> and <a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesian</a> <a href="/wiki/Administrator_of_the_Government" title="Administrator of the Government">administrator</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subrata_Pal" title="Subrata Pal">Subrata Pal</a> - Indian international footballer</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subrata_Sen" title="Subrata Sen">Subrata Sen</a> - Film director</li>
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ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">ReNu</span></h1>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">This article <b>may be <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view#Undue_weight" title="Wikipedia:Neutral point of view">unbalanced</a> towards certain viewpoints</b>. Please <a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ReNu&amp;action=edit">improve the article</a> by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the <a href="/wiki/Talk:ReNu" title="Talk:ReNu">talk page</a>. <small><i>(September 2011)</i></small></td>
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<p><b>ReNu</b> is a brand of soft <a href="/wiki/Contact_lens" title="Contact lens">contact lens</a> care products produced by <a href="/wiki/Bausch_%26_Lomb" title="Bausch &amp; Lomb">Bausch &amp; Lomb</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> It was by far the most popular brand of lens solutions until 2006. The original products are still available as renu fresh (formerly ReNu MultiPlus) and renu sensitive (formerly ReNu Multi-Purpose). The former contains a patented ingredient called hydranate that can eliminate the need for a separate enzymatic cleaner.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=ReNu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: ReNu with MoistureLoc">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="ReNu_with_MoistureLoc">ReNu with MoistureLoc</span></h2>
<p>The brand made headlines in 2006 when a report from the <a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a> <a href="/wiki/Centers_for_Disease_Control_and_Prevention" title="Centers for Disease Control and Prevention">Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</a> suggested an increased incidence of <a href="/wiki/Fungal_keratitis" title="Fungal keratitis">fungal keratitis</a> in people using Bausch &amp; Lomb products.<sup id="cite_ref-CDC_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CDC-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> Bausch &amp; Lomb subsequently suspended, then recalled shipments of one particular product, ReNu with MoistureLoc.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>On March 3, 2006, New Jersey ophthalmologist Dr. David S. Chu contacted <a href="/wiki/Bausch_%26_Lomb" title="Bausch &amp; Lomb">Bausch &amp; Lomb</a> to report that three of his patients had contracted a fungal infection called <a href="/wiki/Fusarium_keratitis" title="Fusarium keratitis" class="mw-redirect">Fusarium keratitis</a>; all three of these patients were contact lens wearers who used <a href="/w/index.php?title=Bausch_%26_Lomb%27s&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Bausch &amp; Lomb's (page does not exist)">Bausch &amp; Lomb's</a> <a href="/w/index.php?title=Renu_with_MoistureLoc&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Renu with MoistureLoc (page does not exist)">Renu with MoistureLoc</a>. Subsequently, he also reported his findings to the <a href="/wiki/Centers_for_Disease_Control_and_Prevention" title="Centers for Disease Control and Prevention">Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</a> on March 8, 2006.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>On April 10, 2006, the CDC announced that it was investigating 109 patients in the United States suspected to have <i><a href="/wiki/Fusarium" title="Fusarium">Fusarium</a></i> keratitis.<sup id="cite_ref-CDC_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CDC-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> They reported that they had complete data available for 30 patients in this group, the earliest onset of infection of which was June 15, 2005.<sup id="cite_ref-CDC_1-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CDC-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>By November 2005, Hong Kong health officials told Bausch &amp; Lomb about a significant increase in hospital admissions due to <a href="/wiki/Contact_lens" title="Contact lens">contact lens</a> related keratitis from June to September 2005 <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://www.monheit.com/ReNu/timeline.asp">[1]</a>.</p>
<p>On April 11, 2006, Bausch &amp; Lomb stopped shipments of its ReNu with MoistureLoc <a href="/w/index.php?title=Contact_lens_solution&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Contact lens solution (page does not exist)">contact lens solution</a> from its <a href="/wiki/Greenville,_South_Carolina" title="Greenville, South Carolina">Greenville, South Carolina</a>, plant after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found what appeared to be a high correlation between use of the product and cases of suspected fungal keratitis <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://www.bausch.com/us/vision/about/news/pressrelease.jsp?pressRelease=2006_4_10_reports.html">[2]</a>. Similar claims had already been made against the product in <a href="/wiki/Hong_Kong" title="Hong Kong">Hong Kong</a> and <a href="/wiki/Singapore" title="Singapore">Singapore</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://go.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=healthNews&amp;storyID=11717975&amp;src=rss/healthNews">[3]</a>. The news about the U.S. suspension led to a 14.6% drop in the company's stock price—a drop of $8.41, to $49.03—the largest the company experienced in 5½ years <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://today.reuters.com/business/newsarticle.aspx?type=tnBusinessNews&amp;storyID=nN11187878&amp;imageid=top-news-view-2006-03-08-201458-eRPPISA%5B24%5D.jpg&amp;cap=A%20trader%20wipes%20his%20face%20as%20he%20works%20the%20floor%20of%20the%20New%20York%20Stock%20Exchange%20before%20opening%20bell%20in%20New%20York%20March%208,%202006.%20The%20New%20York%20Stock%20Exchange%20debuted%20on%20its%20own%20stage%20on%20Wednesday%20as%20shares%20of%20holding%20company%20parent,%20NYSE%20Group%20Inc.%20began%20trading%20following%20its%20acquisition%20of%20Archipelago%20Holdings%20Inc..%20The%20deal%20marked%20the%20end%20of%20213%20years%20as%20a%20member-owned%20institution.%20REUTERS/Keith%20Bedford">[4]</a>.</p>
<p>On April 13, 2006, Bausch &amp; Lomb announced that it is withdrawing the ReNu with MoistureLoc product world-wide and is recommending that consumers stop using ReNu with MoistureLoc immediately. The FDA supports this decision. The FDA, as well as the <a href="/wiki/American_Optometric_Association" title="American Optometric Association">American Optometric Association</a>, also advise now that contact lenses be rubbed and rinsed even when a no-rub contact lens solution is used.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>According to a preliminary report released by the FDA on May 16, 2006, Bausch &amp; Lomb failed to notify the FDA that <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Health_(Singapore)" title="Ministry of Health (Singapore)">Singapore's Ministry of Health</a> reported 35 serious cases of <i>Fusarium</i> keratitis to Bausch &amp; Lomb in February 2006.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The U.S. suspension does not include ReNu products without MoistureLoc.</p>
<p>Only supplies of ReNu with MoistureLoc manufactured in the company's US plant are affected. European supplies are considered to be safe.</p>
<p>On March 7, 2007, Bausch &amp; Lomb issued a voluntary recall on 1.5 million bottles of ReNu MultiPlus solution due to higher than normal amounts of iron in the batch.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=ReNu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: References">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-0"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bausch.com/us/vision/products/softcare/?nav=prodpd.">"Lens care products for soft contact lenses."</a> Bausch &amp; Lomb. Retrieved June 2, 2006.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-CDC-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-CDC_1-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CDC_1-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CDC_1-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5514a5.htm">"Fusarium keratitis--multiple states, 2006."</a> <i>MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.</i> 2006 Apr 14;55(14):400-1. <a class="external mw-magiclink-pmid" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16617289?dopt=Abstract">PMID 16617289</a>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bausch.com/us/vision/about/news/pressrelease.jsp?pressRelease=2006_4_10_reports.html">"Bausch &amp; Lomb News".</a> Bausch &amp; Lomb. Retrieved. June 2, 2006.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/18/business/18eye.html">"From Asia to America, How Bausch's Crisis Grew"</a> The New York Times. March 18, 2006.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.corneajrnl.com/pt/re/cornea/abstract.00003226-200712000-00007.htm;jsessionid=LnLcJkV5hmLbpXcNn4jwnGvLJPR9TV9QZj2QWpTV0P2whGh5lf4X!-927161468!181195628!8091!-1.">"An Outbreak of Fusarium Keratitis Associated With Contact Lens Use in the Northeastern United States." Cornea, 26:10, December, 2007</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.allaboutvision.com/contacts/fungal-eye-infections.htm">"Fungal Eye Infections and Contact Lens Solutions."</a> All About Vision. August 24, 2006.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2006/NEW01372.html">"FDA Statement on Preliminary Bausch &amp; Lomb Inspection Findings."</a> May 16, 2006.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.fda.gov/ora/frequent/483s/1032500_baushlomb/baush_lomb_483.pdf">Form FDA-483</a> May 15, 2006.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/B/BAUSCH__LOMB?SITE=AP&amp;SECTION=HOME&amp;TEMPLATE=DEFAULT">Associated Press</a></span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=ReNu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2>
<ul>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/safety/041006-keratitis.html">US FDA notification of ReNu withdrawal</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/medicaldevicesafety/atp/041006-keratitis.html">US FDA advice to contact lens wearers</a></li>
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ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Raja</span></h1>
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<dd><i>For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Raja_(disambiguation)" title="Raja (disambiguation)">Raja (disambiguation)</a> and <a href="/wiki/Rajah_(disambiguation)" title="Rajah (disambiguation)">Rajah (disambiguation)</a>.</i></dd>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Raja_Ravi_Varma,_Maharaja_Sayaji_Rao.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Raja_Ravi_Varma%2C_Maharaja_Sayaji_Rao.jpg/220px-Raja_Ravi_Varma%2C_Maharaja_Sayaji_Rao.jpg" width="220" height="348" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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Oil Painting Reproduction of a masterpiece portrait painted by Raja Ravi Varma</div>
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<p><b>Raja</b> (also spelled <b>rajah</b>, from <a href="/wiki/Sanskrit_language" title="Sanskrit language" class="mw-redirect">Sanskrit</a> <i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">राज rāja-</span></i>) is an <a href="/wiki/India" title="India">Indian</a> term for a <a href="/wiki/Monarch" title="Monarch">monarch</a>, or princely ruler of the <a href="/wiki/Kshatriya" title="Kshatriya">Kshatriya</a> <a href="/wiki/Varna_(Hinduism)" title="Varna (Hinduism)">varna</a>. The female form, the word for "queen", mainly used for a raja's wife, is <b>rani</b> (sometimes spelled <b>ranee</b>), from Sanskrit <i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">राज्ञी rājñī</span></i>, or <b>ratu</b>, <b>dato</b>, <b>datuk</b>, or <b>datu</b> in <a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asia" title="Southeast Asia">Southeast Asia</a>. The title has a long history in the <a href="/wiki/History_of_India" title="History of India">Indian subcontinent</a> and <a href="/wiki/History_of_Southeast_Asia" title="History of Southeast Asia">Southeast Asia</a>, being attested from the <a href="/wiki/Rigveda" title="Rigveda">Rigveda</a>, where a <i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">rājan-</span></i> is a <a href="/wiki/Rigvedic_tribes" title="Rigvedic tribes">ruler</a>, see for example the (<a href="/wiki/Dasharajna" title="Dasharajna" class="mw-redirect"><i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">dāśarājñá</span></i></a><i>), the "battle of ten kings".</i></p>
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<h2>Contents</h2>
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<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Etymology"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Etymology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Usage_outside_India"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Usage outside India</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Rajadharma"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Rajadharma</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-7"><a href="#Links"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Links</span></a></li>
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<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Raja&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Etymology">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span></h2>
<div class="rellink">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Reich#Etymology" title="Reich">Reich#Etymology</a></div>
<p>Sanskrit <i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">rājan-</span></i> is cognate to <a href="/wiki/Latin" title="Latin">Latin</a> <i><a href="/wiki/Roman_king" title="Roman king" class="mw-redirect">rēx</a></i> (genitive <i>rēgis</i>), <a href="/wiki/Gaulish" title="Gaulish" class="mw-redirect">Gaulish</a> <i>rīx</i>, <a href="/wiki/Goidelic_languages" title="Goidelic languages">Gaelic</a> <i><a href="/wiki/R%C3%AD" title="Rí">rí</a></i> (genitive <i>ríg</i>), etc., originally denoting heads of <a href="/wiki/Petty_kingdom" title="Petty kingdom">petty kingdoms</a> and <a href="/wiki/City_state" title="City state" class="mw-redirect">city states</a>. It is ultimately derived from a <a href="/wiki/PIE" title="PIE" class="mw-redirect">PIE</a> <i><span title="Proto-Indo-European language" class="Unicode" lang="ine" style="white-space: nowrap" xml:lang="ine">*h<sub>3</sub>rēǵs</span></i>, a <a href="/wiki/Vrddhi" title="Vrddhi" class="mw-redirect">vrddhi</a> formation to the root <i><span title="Proto-Indo-European language" class="Unicode" lang="ine" style="white-space: nowrap" xml:lang="ine">*h<sub>3</sub>reǵ-</span></i> "to straighten, to order, to rule". The Sanskrit <i>n</i>-stem is secondary in the male title, apparently adapted from the female counterpart <i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">rājñī</span></i> which also has an <i>-n-</i> suffix in related languages, compare <a href="/wiki/Old_Irish" title="Old Irish">Old Irish</a> <i>rígain</i> and Latin <i>regina</i>. <a href="/wiki/Cognates" title="Cognates" class="mw-redirect">Cognates</a> of the word <i>Raja</i> in other <a href="/wiki/Indo-European_languages" title="Indo-European languages">Indo-European languages</a> include <a href="/wiki/English_language" title="English language">English</a> <i>reign</i> and <a href="/wiki/German_language" title="German language">German</a> <i>reich</i>.</p>
<p>Rather common variants in <a href="/wiki/Rajasthani" title="Rajasthani">Rajasthani</a>, <a href="/wiki/Marathi_language" title="Marathi language">Marathi</a> and <a href="/wiki/Hindi" title="Hindi" class="mw-redirect">Hindi</a>, used for the same royal rank in parts of India include <b>Rana, Rao, Raol, Rawal</b> and <b>Rawat</b>.</p>
<p>Raja, the top title <a href="/wiki/Thakore" title="Thakore">Thakore</a> and many variations, compounds and derivations including either of these were used in and around <a href="/wiki/South_Asia" title="South Asia">South Asia</a> by most <a href="/wiki/Sinhalese_people" title="Sinhalese people">Sinhalese</a> <a href="/wiki/Hindu" title="Hindu">Hindu</a>, <a href="/wiki/Muslim" title="Muslim">Muslim</a> and some Buddhist and Sikh rulers, while Muslims also used <a href="/wiki/Nawab" title="Nawab">Nawab</a> or <a href="/wiki/Sultan" title="Sultan">Sultan</a>, and still is commonly used in <a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a>.</p>
<p><strong class="selflink">Raja</strong> <a href="/w/index.php?title=%E0%B6%BB%E0%B6%A2&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="රජ (page does not exist)">රජ</a> the title means <a href="/wiki/King" title="King" class="mw-redirect">King</a> in <a href="/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a> and has entire power an island wide. <a href="/wiki/Rajamanthri" title="Rajamanthri">Rajamanthri</a> <a href="/w/index.php?title=%E0%B6%BB%E0%B7%8F%E0%B6%A2%E0%B6%B8%E0%B6%B1%E0%B7%8A%E0%B6%AD%E0%B7%8A%E0%B6%BB%E0%B7%93&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="රාජමන්ත්රී (page does not exist)">රාජමන්ත්රී</a> is the <a href="/wiki/Prince" title="Prince">Prince</a> <a href="/w/index.php?title=%E0%B6%BB%E0%B6%A2_%E0%B6%9A%E0%B7%94%E0%B6%B8%E0%B6%BB%E0%B7%90&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="රජ කුමරැ (page does not exist)">රජ කුමරැ</a> lineage of <a href="/wiki/King%27s" title="King's" class="mw-redirect">King's</a> generation in <a href="/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a>. <a href="/wiki/Rajamanthri" title="Rajamanthri">Rajamanthri</a> title is aristocracy of the <a href="/wiki/Kandiyan_Kingdom" title="Kandiyan Kingdom" class="mw-redirect">Kandiyan Kingdom</a> <a href="/w/index.php?title=%E0%B6%B8%E0%B7%84%E0%B6%B1%E0%B7%94%E0%B7%80%E0%B6%BB&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="මහනුවර (page does not exist)">මහනුවර</a> in <a href="/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a>.</p>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/Pakistan" title="Pakistan">Pakistan</a>, Raja is still used by <a href="/wiki/Muslim_Rajputs" title="Muslim Rajputs">Muslim Rajput</a> clans as hereditary titles. <i>Raja</i> is also used as a <a href="/wiki/Given_name" title="Given name">given name</a> by Hindus and Sikhs. The lands ruled by a raja is called a Rajahanate.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Raja&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Usage outside India">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Usage_outside_India">Usage outside India</span></h2>
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<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:A_family_belonging_to_the_Principalia.JPG" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.20wmf3/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
Costume of a family belonging to <a href="/wiki/Principal%C3%ADa" title="Principalía">Principalía</a> during the 19th century. Picture taken from the exhibit in Villa Escudero Museum in San Pablo Laguna, Philippines.</div>
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<ul>
<li>In the <a href="/wiki/Sinhalese_language" title="Sinhalese language" class="mw-redirect">Sinhalese language</a>, the title 'Raja' means <a href="/wiki/King" title="King" class="mw-redirect">King</a> of the <a href="/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a> and has the entire power and the equal status in an island wide. <a href="/wiki/Rajamanthri" title="Rajamanthri">Rajamanthri</a> is the <a href="/wiki/Prince" title="Prince">Prince</a> lineage of <a href="/wiki/King%27s" title="King's" class="mw-redirect">King's</a> generation especially <a href="/wiki/Rajamanthri" title="Rajamanthri">Rajamanthri</a> is aristocracy of the <a href="/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kandy" title="Kingdom of Kandy">Kingdom of Kandy</a> in <a href="/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a> <a href="/wiki/History" title="History">history</a>. These native <a href="/wiki/Royal_Family" title="Royal Family" class="mw-redirect">Royal Family</a> in <a href="/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a>.</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li>In the <a href="/wiki/Indonesian_language" title="Indonesian language">Indonesian language</a>, the word <i>raja</i> means "king". Many of the leaders of local tribes and old kingdoms had that title before Indonesia became an independent nation. Various traditional princely states in <a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a> still style their ruler Raja, or did so until their abolition after which the title became hollow, e.g., <a href="/wiki/Buleleng" title="Buleleng">Buleleng</a> on <a href="/wiki/Bali" title="Bali">Bali</a>.</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li>In the <a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay language</a>, the word <i>raja</i> also means "king". In Malaysia, the <a href="/wiki/Malay_Ruler" title="Malay Ruler" class="mw-redirect">ruler</a> of the <a href="/wiki/States_of_Malaysia" title="States of Malaysia" class="mw-redirect">state</a> of <a href="/wiki/Perlis" title="Perlis">Perlis</a> is titled the Raja of Perlis, which literally means the 'King of Perlis'. Most of the other state rulers are titled sultans. Nevertheless, the raja has an equal status with the other rulers and is one of the electors who designate one of their number as the <a href="/wiki/Yang_di-Pertuan_Agong" title="Yang di-Pertuan Agong">Yang di-Pertuan Agong</a> every five years. In the state of <a href="/wiki/Perak" title="Perak">Perak</a>, the title 'Raja' means '<a href="/wiki/Prince" title="Prince">Prince</a>'. The <a href="/wiki/White_Rajahs" title="White Rajahs">White Rajahs</a> (Raja Putih) of <a href="/wiki/Sarawak" title="Sarawak">Sarawak</a> in <a href="/wiki/Borneo" title="Borneo">Borneo</a> were <a href="/wiki/James_Brooke" title="James Brooke">James Brooke</a> and his <a href="/wiki/Dynasty" title="Dynasty">dynasty</a>.</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li>In the Philippines, <a href="/wiki/Italy" title="Italy">Italian</a> historian <a href="/wiki/Antonio_Pigafetta" title="Antonio Pigafetta">Antonio Pigafetta</a> relates in his document of the first circumnavigation that when the <a href="/wiki/Portugal" title="Portugal">Portuguese</a> explorer <a href="/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan" title="Ferdinand Magellan">Ferdinand Magellan</a> reached on March 28, 1521, the island-port of <a href="/wiki/Mazaua" title="Mazaua">Mazaua</a> in Mindanao he was met by <a href="/w/index.php?title=Raia_Siaiu&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Raia Siaiu (page does not exist)">Raia Siaiu</a>, the King of <a href="/wiki/Mazaua" title="Mazaua">Mazaua</a> and <a href="/w/index.php?title=Raia_Calambu&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Raia Calambu (page does not exist)">Raia Calambu</a>, the King of <a href="/wiki/Kingdom_of_Butuan" title="Kingdom of Butuan">Butuan</a>. Magellan entered into the first recorded blood compact (<i>cassi cassi</i> was the Malayan term Magellan used) with <a href="/w/index.php?title=Raia_Siaiu&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Raia Siaiu (page does not exist)">Raia Siaiu</a>. When the Spanish fleet, led by <a href="/wiki/Miguel_L%C3%B3pez_de_Legazpi" title="Miguel López de Legazpi">Miguel López de Legazpi</a>, arrived in <a href="/wiki/Kingdom_of_Maynila" title="Kingdom of Maynila">Manila</a>, they were met by the <a href="/wiki/Kingdom_of_Maynila" title="Kingdom of Maynila">King of Manila</a>, <a href="/wiki/Rajah_Sulaiman_III" title="Rajah Sulaiman III" class="mw-redirect">Rajah Sulaiman III</a>. In the south of the country, various subdivisional princes among the <a href="/wiki/Moro_people" title="Moro people">Moro peoples</a> are still given the titles Rajah or Maharajah.
<ul>
<li>All of the major kingdoms in the Philippines (which included the Kingdoms and Principalities in <a href="/wiki/Luzon" title="Luzon">Luzon</a> <a href="/wiki/Visayas" title="Visayas">Visayas</a> and some parts of <a href="/wiki/Mindanao" title="Mindanao">Mindanao</a>, excluding the <a href="/wiki/Sultanate_of_Maguindanao" title="Sultanate of Maguindanao">Sultanate of Maguindanao</a>) were annexed by the <a href="/wiki/Spanish_Empire" title="Spanish Empire">Spanish Empire</a> in the 16th century.</li>
<li>Upon the <a href="/wiki/Christianity" title="Christianity">Christianization</a> of most parts of the Philippine <a href="/wiki/Archipelago" title="Archipelago">Archipelago</a>, the Rajas and <a href="/wiki/Datu" title="Datu">Datus</a> (king) of the pre-Hispanic kingdoms and principalities retained their right to govern their territory under the <a href="/wiki/Spanish_Empire" title="Spanish Empire">Spanish Empire</a>. King <a href="/wiki/Philip_II_of_Spain" title="Philip II of Spain">Philip II of Spain</a>, in a law signed <a href="/wiki/June_11" title="June 11">June 11</a>, <a href="/wiki/1594" title="1594">1594</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> commanded the Spanish colonial officials in the Archipelago that these native royalties and nobilities be given the same respect, and privileges that they had enjoyed before their conversion. Later, the Filipino royals and nobles formed part of the exclusive, and elite ruling class, called the <i><a href="/wiki/Principal%C3%ADa" title="Principalía">Principalía</a> (Noble Class)</i> of the Philippines.</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Raja&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Rajadharma">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Rajadharma">Rajadharma</span></h2>
<div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">See also: <a href="/wiki/Dharma" title="Dharma">Dharma</a></div>
<p>Rajadharma is the dharma which applies to the king, or the Raja. <a href="/wiki/Dharma" title="Dharma">Dharma</a> is that which upholds, supports, or maintains the order of the universe and is based on truth.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> It is of central importance in achieving order and balance within the world and does this by demanding certain necessary behaviors from people.</p>
<p>The king served two main functions as the Raja: Secular and Religious.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> The religious functions involved certain acts for propitiating gods, removing dangers, and guarding dharma, among other things. The secular functions involved helping prosperity (such as during times of famine), dealing out even-handed justice, and protecting people and their property.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Protection of his subjects was seen as the first and foremost duty of the king. This was achieved by punishing internal aggression, such as thieves among his people, and meeting external aggression, such as attacks by foreign entities.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> Moreover, the king possessed executive, judicial, and legislative dharmas, which he was responsible for carrying out. If he did so wisely, the king believed that he would be rewarded by reaching the pinnacle of the abode of the sun, or heaven.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> However, if the king carried out his office poorly, he feared that he would suffer hell or be struck down by a deity.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup>. As scholar Charles Drekmeier notes, "dharma stood above the king, and his failure to preserve it must accordingly have disastrous consequences". Because the king's power had to be employed subject to the requirements of the various castes' dharma, failure to "enforce the code" transferred guilt on to the ruler, and according to Drekmeier some texts went so far as to justify revolt against a ruler who abused his power or inadequately performed his dharma. In other words, Danda as both the king's tool of coercion and power, yet also his potential downfall, "was a two-edged sword".<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The executive duty of the king was primarily to carry out punishment, or <a href="/wiki/Danda_(Hindu_Punishment)" title="Danda (Hindu Punishment)" class="mw-redirect">Danda (Hindu Punishment)</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup> For instance, a judge who would give an incorrect verdict out of passion, ignorance, or greed is not worthy of the office, and the king should punish him harshly.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup> Another executive dharma of the king is correcting the behavior of brahmanas that have strayed from their dharma, or duties, through the use of strict punishment.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> These two examples demonstrated how the king was responsible for enforcing the dharmas of his subjects, but also was in charge of enforcing rulings in more civil disputes.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup> Such as if a man is able to repay a creditor but does not do so out of mean-spiritedness, the king should make him pay the money and take five percent for himself.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The judicial duty of the king was deciding any disputes that arose in his kingdom and any conflicts that arose between <a href="/wiki/Dharmasastra" title="Dharmasastra" class="mw-redirect">dharmasastra</a> and practices at the time or between dharmasastra and any secular transactions.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup> When he took the judgment seat, the king was to abandon all selfishness and be neutral to all things.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> The king would hear cases, such as thefts, and would use dharma to come to a decision.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup> He was also responsible for making sure that the witnesses were honest and truthful by way of testing them.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup> If the king conducted these trials according to dharma, he would be rewarded with wealth, fame, respect, and an eternal place in heaven, among other things.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup> However, not all cases fell upon the shoulders of the king. It was also the king's duty to appoint judges that would decide cases with the same integrity as the king.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The king also had a legislative duty, which was utilized when he would enact different decrees, such as announcing a festival or a day of rest for the kingdom.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Rajadharma largely portrayed the king as an administrator above all else.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup> The main purpose for the king executing punishment, or danda, was to ensure that all of his subjects were carrying out their own particular dharmas.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup> For this reason, rajadharma was often seen as the root of all dharma and was the highest goal.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup> The whole purpose of the king was to make everything and everyone prosper.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup> If they were not prospering, the king was not fulfilling his dharma.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup> He had to carry out his duties as laid down in the science of government and "not act at his sweet will."<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup> Indeed, in the major writings on dharma (i.e. <a href="/wiki/Dharmasastra" title="Dharmasastra" class="mw-redirect">dharmasastra</a>, etc.), the dharma of the king was regarded as the "capstone" of the other castes' dharma both due to the king's goal of securing the happiness and prosperity of his people<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup> as well as his ability to act as the "guarantor" of the whole social structure through the enforcement of <a href="/wiki/Danda_(Hindu_Punishment)" title="Danda (Hindu Punishment)" class="mw-redirect">Danda (Hindu Punishment)</a><sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup>.</p>
<p>In contemporary India, an idea pervades various levels of Hindu society: the "Ramrajya", or a kind of Hindu <a href="/wiki/Golden_Age" title="Golden Age">Golden Age</a> in which through his strict adherence to rajadharma as outline in the Hindu epics and elsewhere, <a href="/wiki/Ram" title="Ram">Ram</a> serves as the ideal model of the perfect Hindu king. As Derrett put it, "everyone lives at peace" because "everyone knows his place" and could easily be forced into that place if necessary.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup> Ram's actions with regards to his wife <a href="/wiki/Sita" title="Sita">Sita</a> at the end of the <a href="/wiki/Ramayana" title="Ramayana">Ramayana</a> arguably serve as the best example of his utmost regard for his dharma as king, although other actions of his both before and after his defeat of <a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravana</a> are equally revered.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Raja&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
<div class="column-count column-count-2" style="-moz-column-count: 2; -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/King" title="King" class="mw-redirect">King</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kshatriya" title="Kshatriya">Kshatriya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maharaja" title="Maharaja">Maharaja</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Monarch" title="Monarch">Monarch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Monarchy" title="Monarchy">Monarchy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Monarchy_in_ancient_India" title="Monarchy in ancient India">Monarchy in ancient India</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rajamandala" title="Rajamandala" class="mw-redirect">Rajamandala</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rajamanthri" title="Rajamanthri">Rajamanthri</a> 'Prince' linage of 'King's' generation</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rajput" title="Rajput">Rajput</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rani" title="Rani">Rani</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singh" title="Singh">Singh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shah" title="Shah">Shah</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sultan" title="Sultan">Sultan</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Raja&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Notes">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-0"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">“It is not right that the Indian chiefs of Filipinas be in a worse condition after conversion; rather they should have such treatment that would gain their affection and keep them loyal, so that with the spiritual blessings that God has communicated to them by calling them to His true knowledge, the temporal blessings may be added and they may live contentedly and comfortably. Therefore, we order the governors of those islands to show them good treatment and entrust them, in our name, with the government of the Indians, of whom they were formerly lords. In all else the governors shall see that the chiefs are benefited justly, and the Indians shall pay them something as a recognition, as they did during the period of their paganism, provided it be without prejudice to the tributes that are to be paid us, or prejudicial to that which pertains to their encomenderos.” Felipe II, <i>Ley de Junio 11, 1594</i> in <i>Recapilación de leyes</i>, lib. vi, tit. VII, ley xvi. Also cf. <a href="/wiki/Emma_Helen_Blair" title="Emma Helen Blair">Emma Helen Blair</a> and James Alexander Robertson, <i>The Philippine Islands (1493-1898)</i>, Cleveland: The A.H. Clark Company, 1903, Vol. XVI, pp. 155-156.The original text in Spanish (Recapilación de leyes) says: <i>No es justo, que los Indios Principales de Filipinas sean de peor condición, después de haberse convertido, ántes de les debe hacer tratamiento, que los aficione, y mantenga en felicidad, para que con los bienes espirituales, que Dios les ha comunicado llamándolos a su verdadero conocimiento, se junten los temporales, y vivan con gusto y conveniencia. Por lo qua mandamos a los Gobernadores de aquellas Islas, que les hagan buen tratamiento, y encomienden en nuestro nombre el gobierno de los Indios, de que eran Señores, y en todo lo demás procuren, que justamente se aprovechen haciéndoles los Indios algún reconocimiento en la forma que corría el tiempo de su Gentilidad, con que esto sin perjuicio de los tributos, que á Nos han de pagar, ni de lo que á sus Encomenderos</i>. Juan de Ariztia, ed., <i>Recapilación de leyes</i>, Madrid (1723), lib. vi, tit. VII, ley xvi. This reference can be found at the library of the Estudio Teologico Agustiniano de Valladolid in Spain.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, 1989</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.101</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.101</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.56</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, p.19</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.96</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Drekmeier, p.10</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.21</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, p.18</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, p.48</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Derrett, p.598</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, p.67</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.9</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, p.10</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, p.8</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, p.18</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, p.9</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lariviere, p.20</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.98</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.31</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.21</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.3</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.11</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.62</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kane, p.31</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Derret, p.599</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Drekmeier, p.10-11</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Derrett, p.598</span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Raja&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: References">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
<ul>
<li>Derrett, J.D.M. "Rajadharma." The Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 35, No. 4 (Aug., 1976), pp. 597-609</li>
<li>Drekmeier, Charles. <i>Kingship and Community in Early India.</i> Stanford: Stanford UP, 1962.</li>
<li>Kane, Pandurang Vaman. 1968. History of Dharmaśāstra: (ancient and Mediæval Religious and Civil Law In India). [2d ed.] rev. and enl. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.</li>
<li>Lariviere, Richard W. 1989. "The Naradasmrti." University of Pennsylvania Studies on South Asia.</li>
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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Ramlila</span></h1>
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An actor playing <a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravana</a> for a scene from Ramlila</div>
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<p><b>Ramlila</b> (<a href="/wiki/Hindi_language" title="Hindi language" class="mw-redirect">Hindi</a>: <span lang="hi" xml:lang="hi">रामलीला</span>) (literally '<a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Rama</a>’s <a href="/wiki/Lila_(Hinduism)" title="Lila (Hinduism)">lila or play</a>') is a dramatic folk re-enactment of the life of <a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Lord Ram</a>, ending up in ten day battle between <a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Lord Ram</a> and <a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravan</a>, as described in the <a href="/wiki/Hindu" title="Hindu">Hindu</a> religious <a href="/wiki/Epic_poetry" title="Epic poetry">epic</a>, the <i><a href="/wiki/Ramayana" title="Ramayana">Ramayana</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> A tradition that originates from the <a href="/wiki/Indian_subcontinent" title="Indian subcontinent">Indian subcontinent</a>, the play is staged annually often over ten or more successive nights, during the auspicious period of '<a href="/wiki/Sharad" title="Sharad">Sharad</a> <a href="/wiki/Navratras" title="Navratras" class="mw-redirect">Navratras</a>', which marks the commencement of the Autumn festive period, starting with the <a href="/wiki/Navratri" title="Navratri">Dussehra</a> festival. Usually the performances are timed to culminate on the festival of <a href="/wiki/Vijayadashami" title="Vijayadashami">Vijayadashami</a> day, that commemorates the victory of <a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Lord Ram</a> over demon king <a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravana</a>, when the actors are taken out in a procession through the city, leading up to a mela ground or town square, where the enactment of the final battle takes place, before giant effigies of Ravana, his brother <a href="/wiki/Kumbhakarna" title="Kumbhakarna">Kumbhakaran</a> and son <a href="/wiki/Meghanath" title="Meghanath" class="mw-redirect">Meghanath</a> are set fire, and coronation or <i><a href="/wiki/Abhisheka" title="Abhisheka">abhisheka</a></i> of Rama at <a href="/wiki/Ayodhya" title="Ayodhya">Ayodhya</a> takes place, marking the culmination of festivities and restoration of the divine order.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Rama is the 7th <a href="/wiki/Incarnation" title="Incarnation">incarnation</a> of <a href="/wiki/Vishnu" title="Vishnu">Vishnu</a> and central figure of the <a href="/wiki/Ramayana" title="Ramayana">Ramayana</a>. The Ramayana is based on the life, times and values of Lord Rama. Lord Rama is called the Maryada Purushottam or 'The best among the dignified'. The story of Lord Rama and his comrades is so popular in India that it has actually amalgamated the psyche of the Indian mainstream irrespective of their religion. The very story of Ramayana injects ethics to the Indian mainstream.</p>
<p>Most Ramlilas in North India are based on the 16th century <a href="/wiki/Avadhi" title="Avadhi" class="mw-redirect">Avadhi</a> version of Ramayana, <i><a href="/wiki/Ramcharitmanas" title="Ramcharitmanas">Ramcharitmanas</a></i>, written by <a href="/wiki/Tulsidas" title="Tulsidas">Gosvami Tulsidas</a> entirely in verse, thus used as dialogues in most traditional versions, where open-air productions are staged by local Ramlila committees, 'Samitis', and funded entirely by the local population, the audience.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> It is close to the similar form of folk theatre, <a href="/wiki/Rasa_lila" title="Rasa lila">Rasa lila</a>, which depicts the life of <a href="/wiki/Krishna" title="Krishna">Krishna</a>, popular in <a href="/wiki/Uttar_Pradesh" title="Uttar Pradesh">Uttar Pradesh</a>, especially <a href="/wiki/Braja" title="Braja" class="mw-redirect">Braja</a> regions of <a href="/wiki/Mathura,_Uttar_Pradesh" title="Mathura, Uttar Pradesh" class="mw-redirect">Mathura</a>, <a href="/wiki/Vrindavan" title="Vrindavan">Vrindavan</a>, and amongst followers of <a href="/wiki/Gaudiya_Vaishnavism" title="Gaudiya Vaishnavism">Gaudiya Vaishnavism</a> and <a href="/wiki/Vaishnavism_of_Manipur" title="Vaishnavism of Manipur">Vaishnavism in Manipur</a>, with some similarity with Pandavlila of <a href="/wiki/Garhwal_Kingdom" title="Garhwal Kingdom">Garhwal</a>, based on life of <a href="/wiki/Pandavas" title="Pandavas" class="mw-redirect">Pandavas</a> of <a href="/wiki/Mahabharat" title="Mahabharat" class="mw-redirect">Mahabharat</a> and <a href="/wiki/Yakshagana" title="Yakshagana">Yakshagana</a> of Karnataka, based on various epic and <a href="/wiki/Puranas" title="Puranas">puranas</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-inti_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-inti-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Ramlila has received considerable global attention, especially due to its diverse representation throughout the globe, especially amongst the <a href="/wiki/Indian_diaspora" title="Indian diaspora" class="mw-redirect">Indian diaspora</a> community, and regions where Hinduism has spread over the centuries, like Africa and several South East Asian countries. <a href="/wiki/UNESCO" title="UNESCO">UNESCO</a> proclaimed the tradition of Ramlila a <a href="/wiki/Masterpieces_of_the_Oral_and_Intangible_Heritage_of_Humanity" title="Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity">Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity</a> in <a href="/wiki/2005" title="2005">2005</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-un_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-un-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> Subsequently, <a href="/wiki/Govt._of_India" title="Govt. of India" class="mw-redirect">Govt. of India</a> and <a href="/wiki/IGNCA" title="IGNCA" class="mw-redirect">IGNCA</a> produced a two hour documentary, titled "Ramlila - The traditional performance of Ramayana" for UNESCO, on 'Ramnagar Ramlila', and Ramlila traditions of <a href="/wiki/Avadh" title="Avadh" class="mw-redirect">Avadh</a>, <a href="/wiki/Braj" title="Braj">Braj</a> and <a href="/wiki/Madhubani,_India" title="Madhubani, India">Madhubani</a>, and that of <a href="/wiki/Ayodhya" title="Ayodhya">Ayodhya</a>, which assimilates elements of all three.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> Another unique Ramlila, is being staged since 1972, at <a href="/wiki/Bakshi_Ka_Talab" title="Bakshi Ka Talab">Bakshi Ka Talab</a>, about 20&#160;km from Lucknow, where lead characters like Rama, Lakshman and Hanuman are played by Muslim youths, a clear departure in a region known for communal flare-ups; this four-day Ram Lila starts on the day of Dusshera day, and has also been adapted into a Radio play, 'Us Gaon ki Ram Lila', by Lucknow <a href="/wiki/All_India_Radio" title="All India Radio">All India Radio</a>, which won the Communal Harmony Award in 2000.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
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<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Styles_of_Ramlila"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Styles of Ramlila</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Ramlila_at_Ramnagar.2C_Varanasi"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Ramlila at Ramnagar, Varanasi</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#Format"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Format</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#Geographic_spread"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Geographic spread</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-7"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
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<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ramlila&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: History">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>
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<a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravana</a> awaits his destruction.</div>
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<p>Historically it is believed that first Ramlila shows were staged by Megha Bhagat, one of the disciples of <a href="/wiki/Tulsidas" title="Tulsidas">Tulsidas</a>, the author of <a href="/wiki/Ramacharitamanas" title="Ramacharitamanas" class="mw-redirect">Ramacharitamanas</a> in about 1625 AD, though there are some evidence of its existence in some form before the creation of this version as well. Some scholars believe its first appearance somewhere between 1200 and 1500 AD. Later during in the time of Mughal emperor <a href="/wiki/Akbar" title="Akbar">Akbar</a>, according to some, Akbar is said to have watched a performance. <a href="/wiki/Krishnadasa_Kaviraja" title="Krishnadasa Kaviraja">Krishna Das Kaviraj</a> mentions in his 16th century <a href="/wiki/Hagiography" title="Hagiography">hagiography</a> of saint <a href="/wiki/Chaitanya_Mahaprabhu" title="Chaitanya Mahaprabhu">Chaitanya Mahaprabhu</a> (1486–1533), <a href="/wiki/Chaitanya_Charitamrita" title="Chaitanya Charitamrita">Chaitanya Charitamrita</a>, that once he got carried away while performing the character of Hanuman at a play in Puri, thus proving the existence of Ramayana plays, before the Ramcharitamanas appeared.<sup id="cite_ref-inti_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-inti-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup> Though it would safe to conclude that its implosion into the Hindi heartland, happened only after Tulsidas created his version in people's language of the time, the <a href="/wiki/Avadhi" title="Avadhi" class="mw-redirect">Avadhi</a>, unlike <a href="/wiki/Ramayana" title="Ramayana">the original</a> written by <a href="/wiki/Valmiki" title="Valmiki">Valmiki</a>, in <a href="/wiki/Sanskrit" title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit</a>, the language only spoken by <a href="/wiki/Brahmin" title="Brahmin">Brahmins</a> by then, which excluded much of masses from experiencing the inspirational saga, which is essentially the victory of good over evil.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ramlila&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Styles of Ramlila">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Styles_of_Ramlila">Styles of Ramlila</span></h2>
<p>Today, several regions have developed their distinctive form of Ramlila, <a href="/wiki/Uttar_Pradesh" title="Uttar Pradesh">Uttar Pradesh</a> itself has numerous variants of presentation styles, most prominent among them is that of <a href="/wiki/Ramnagar,_Varanasi" title="Ramnagar, Varanasi">Ramnagar, Varanasi</a>, staged over multiple venue, the <a href="/wiki/Pantomime" title="Pantomime">pantomime</a> style is visible in <i>jhankis</i> or tableaux pageants as seem in Ramlila of <a href="/wiki/Varanasi" title="Varanasi">Varanasi</a>, where colourful Jhankis and pageants depicting scenes from the life of Lord Rama are taken out through the city.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup> According to a 2008 <a href="/wiki/UNESCO" title="UNESCO">UNESCO</a> report, the most representative Ramlilas are those of <a href="/wiki/Ayodhya" title="Ayodhya">Ayodhya</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ramnagar,_Varanasi" title="Ramnagar, Varanasi">Ramnagar</a> and <a href="/wiki/Varanasi" title="Varanasi">Varanasi</a>, <a href="/wiki/Vrindavan" title="Vrindavan">Vrindavan</a>, <a href="/wiki/Almora" title="Almora">Almora</a>, <a href="/wiki/Satna" title="Satna">Satna</a> and <a href="/wiki/Madhubani,_India" title="Madhubani, India">Madhubani</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-un_4-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-un-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Almora" title="Almora">Almora</a> or <a href="/w/index.php?title=Kumaon_people&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Kumaon people (page does not exist)">Kumaon</a> style was set in the musical rendering of the<i>katha</i> based on the theatrical style developed by <a href="/wiki/Uday_Shankar" title="Uday Shankar">Uday Shankar</a> during his stay in Almora, it was carried on forward by <a href="/wiki/Mohan_Upreti" title="Mohan Upreti">Mohan Upreti</a> and Brijendra Lal Sah.</p>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:252px;"><a href="/wiki/File:An_Ramlila_Actor_In_The_Role_of_Ravana.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/An_Ramlila_Actor_In_The_Role_of_Ravana.jpg/250px-An_Ramlila_Actor_In_The_Role_of_Ravana.jpg" width="250" height="175" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:An_Ramlila_Actor_In_The_Role_of_Ravana.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.20wmf3/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
A Ramlila actor the traditional attire of <a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravana</a></div>
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<p>Next is the <a href="/wiki/Operatic" title="Operatic" class="mw-redirect">operatic</a> style incorporates elements of folk theatre elements generously, while the traditional style remains, where the couplets of Ramacharitmanas not only act as dialogues, but also as chorus as well, and lastly there is the Ramlila staged by professional troupes called "mandalis".<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup> Many urban Ramilias now have dialogues written in <i>Khadi Boli</i> or in local dialects, but the treatment remains melodramatic as always to achieve maximum impact amidst an audience that knows the story by heart, but watches the enactment nevertheless for religious fervour and also for its spectacle value, making Ramlila an important event in the religious as well as social calendar of not only in small town and villages but also many big cities. Just other folk theatre form of India, like <a href="/wiki/Jatra_(Bengal)" title="Jatra (Bengal)">Jatra</a> of Bengal, topic themes are often interwoven in the script to had relevance and sometimes humour is used to offer a critic or commentary over current happenings.</p>
<p>A unique staging of Ramlila, takes place at <a href="/wiki/Chitrakoot" title="Chitrakoot">Chitrakoot</a>, over five days every year during the last week of February, beginning from the <a href="/wiki/Maha_Shivratri" title="Maha Shivratri" class="mw-redirect">Maha Shivratri</a> day, here the episode of <i>Bharat-Milap</i> is of prime importance, and is watched by eager devotees.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Ram_Barat" title="Ram Barat">Ram Barat</a> of Hi ha ha ha ha <a href="/wiki/Agra" title="Agra">Agra</a> is another interesting tradition connected with Ramlila, where in during the three festivities, a marriage procession of Rama is taken through various localities of the city.</p>
<p>Delhi holds many prominent Ramlilas across the city, including the oldest one on the Ramlila Grounds, outside the historic <a href="/wiki/Red_Fort" title="Red Fort">Red Fort</a>, it was started in times of Mughal emperor <a href="/wiki/Bahadur_Shah_Zafar" title="Bahadur Shah Zafar" class="mw-redirect">Bahadur Shah Zafar</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup> and in 2004, for the first time, Ramlila celebrations organised by Luv-Kush Ramlila Committee were telecast to over 100 countries, telecast on SADHNA TV.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ramlila&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Ramlila at Ramnagar, Varanasi">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Ramlila_at_Ramnagar.2C_Varanasi">Ramlila at Ramnagar, Varanasi</span></h2>
<p>The tradition of staging the Ramlila at <a href="/wiki/Ramnagar,_Varanasi" title="Ramnagar, Varanasi">Ramnagar, Varanasi</a>, which lies across the Ganges river from the Hindu pilgrimage city of <a href="/wiki/Varanasi" title="Varanasi">Varanasi</a>, was started in ca 1830 by <a href="/wiki/Maharaja_Udit_Narayan_Singh" title="Maharaja Udit Narayan Singh" class="mw-redirect">Maharaja Udit Narayan Singh</a>, <a href="/wiki/Kashi_Naresh" title="Kashi Naresh" class="mw-redirect">Kashi Naresh</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-eich_14-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-eich-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> It rose in popularity during the reign of his successor Maharaj Isvari Prasad Singh, and received continued patronage from the subsequent Kings of the <a href="/wiki/Royal_House_of_Benares" title="Royal House of Benares">Royal House of Benares</a> to create a participatory <a href="/wiki/Environmental_theatre" title="Environmental theatre" class="mw-redirect">environmental theatre</a> (Site-specific theatre) on a grand scale, where attendance ranges from few thousands to 100,000 for others.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup> The Ramlila is a cycle of plays which recounts the epic story of <a href="/wiki/Lord_Rama" title="Lord Rama" class="mw-redirect">Lord Rama</a>, as told in <i><a href="/wiki/Ramcharitmanas" title="Ramcharitmanas">Ramcharitmanas</a></i>, the version of the <a href="/wiki/Ramayana" title="Ramayana">Ramayana</a> penned by <a href="/wiki/Tulsidas" title="Tulsidas">Tulsidas</a>. The plays sponsored by the Maharaja, are performed in Ramnagar every evening for 31 days.<sup id="cite_ref-eich_14-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-eich-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Though several local legends exist regarding the beginning of this Ramlila, including one of which suggests that it was first staged at a nearby village, Chota Mirzapur as the one at Varanasi was disrupted due to the floods in the Ganges, from where it evolved to the present Ramlila, which is by far the most traditional rendition of the Ramayana, and has been a subject of study by scholars from all over the world for many decades now.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The Ramnagar Ramlila is held over 31 days instead of usual 10, and is known for its lavish sets, dialogues and visual spectacle. Here permanent structures have been built and several temporary structure are also added, which serve as sets, to represent locations like <a href="/wiki/Ashok_Vatika" title="Ashok Vatika">Ashok Vatika</a>, Janakpuri, <a href="/wiki/Panchavati" title="Panchavati">Panchavati</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lanka" title="Lanka">Lanka</a> etc., during the performance. Hence the entire city turn into a giant open-air set, and audience moves along with the performers with every episode, to the next locale. Preparations begin, weeks before its commencement, even the audition process is traditionally attended to by the Maharaja, where <i>Svarupas</i>, literally divine embodiment, the various characters of the Ramayana, are chosen from amongst local actors. Important roles are often inherited by families, for example, the role of <a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravana</a> was held by same family from 1835 to 1990, and roles of Hanuman, Jatayu, and Janaka traditionally belong to one Vyasa family.<sup id="cite_ref-tex_17-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-tex-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup> When the <a href="/wiki/Navratri" title="Navratri">Dussehra</a> festivities are inaugurated with a colourful pageant <a href="/wiki/Kashi_Naresh" title="Kashi Naresh" class="mw-redirect">Kashi Naresh</a> rides an elephant at the head of the procession.<sup id="cite_ref-eich_14-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-eich-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> Then, resplendent in silk and brocade, he inaugurates the month long <a href="/wiki/Theatre" title="Theatre">folk theatre</a> of <i>Ramlila</i> at <a href="/wiki/Ramnagar" title="Ramnagar">Ramnagar</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-eich_14-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-eich-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> During the period, hundreds of <a href="/wiki/Sadhus" title="Sadhus" class="mw-redirect">sadhus</a> called 'Ramayanis' descend into the town to watch and recite the Ramcharitmanas text. Many a audience carry a copy of the Ramacharit Manas, simply called Manas, and follow stanza after stanza, after the characters delivering their dialogue.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>During the course of the performance, there is a double transformation of the space within the city, as it first transforms from a city to theatre and then to mythic geography, as the scale of the performance is gradually increased to mythic proportions, coming down only in the end, when Rama finally returns home, this is when the Raja himself becomes part of the theatre thereby incorporating local element into the story itself. In the end, as the <i>swarups</i>, actors depart, they take off their garlands and offer it to Royal family members and give <a href="/wiki/Darshan" title="Darshan" class="mw-redirect">darshan</a> to audience, after the performance one last time.<sup id="cite_ref-rit_20-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rit-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup> At the end of each episode, <a href="/wiki/Lila_(Hinduism)" title="Lila (Hinduism)">lila</a>, an <a href="/wiki/Aarti" title="Aarti">aarti</a> is performed, chants of 'Har Har Mahadev' or 'Bolo! Raja Ramchandra ki Jai!' resound in the air, as the audience join in. Thereafter, a <i>jhanki</i>, literally a peep or glimpse, tableaux of frozen iconic moments from the 'Manas', is presented, which not only distill and crystallize the message of the story for the audience, but is also appreciated for its spectacular effect.<sup id="cite_ref-rit_20-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rit-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>On the last day the festivities reach a crescendo as <a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Rama</a> vanquishes the demon king <a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravana</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-eich_14-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-eich-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> Over a million pilgrims arrive annually for the vast processions and performances organized by <a href="/wiki/Kashi_Naresh" title="Kashi Naresh" class="mw-redirect">Kashi Naresh</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ramlila&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Format">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Format">Format</span></h2>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:282px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Ramlila.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Ramlila.jpg/280px-Ramlila.jpg" width="280" height="185" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Ramlila.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.20wmf3/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
Lead performers of a Ramlila troupe <i>mandali</i>, with the director, called <i>vyasa</i></div>
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<p>Traditionally organized in a makeshift open-air theatre at night, it is usually staged by amateur actors drawn from the same social grouping as the audience. There is often a singer (occasionally a priest) in the sidelines who recites relevant verses from the Ramayana during scene-changes or at moments of dramatic tension. These recitations and the narrative of the play are usually based on <i><a href="/wiki/Ramacharitamanas" title="Ramacharitamanas" class="mw-redirect">Ramacharitamanas</a></i>, <a href="/wiki/Tulsidas" title="Tulsidas">Gosvami Tulsidas</a>' version of the <a href="/wiki/Ramayana" title="Ramayana">Ramayana</a>, in the <a href="/wiki/Awadhi_language" title="Awadhi language">Awadhi language</a>, written in 16th century. The dialog is improvised, and often responsive to audience reactions. <a href="/wiki/Dhol" title="Dhol">Dhol</a> drummers and other musicians participate. The atmosphere is usually festive and free, with the audience whistling and commenting as the story proceeds.</p>
<p>In many rural areas, traditional venues for Ramlila have developed over the centuries, and hundreds of people will often make the trip nightly to attend the play. Surrounding areas temporarily transform into <a href="/wiki/Bazaar" title="Bazaar">bazaars</a> to cater to the audience. Depending on the region, interspersed breaks in the play can become impromptu <a href="/wiki/Talent_show" title="Talent show">talent shows</a> for local society, and a de facto competition takes place between neighbouring Ram lilas, each vying to stage a more lavish production. Though the play itself is thematically religious, this social aspect often draws in people from non-Hindu segments of the community as well. Performance costs are usually financed by <a href="/wiki/Fundraising" title="Fundraising">fundraising</a> in the community, often by self-organized Ramlila Committees.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ramlila&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Geographic spread">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Geographic_spread">Geographic spread</span></h2>
<p>Over the centuries, Ramlila has evolved into a highly venerated art form, and has travelled to far corners of the globe, through <a href="/wiki/Indian_diaspora" title="Indian diaspora" class="mw-redirect">Indian diaspora</a>, not as acts of "cultural recovery", rather as fresh expressions of a persistent faith. Today, Ramalila is staged in most countries that with immigrant <a href="/wiki/Hindu" title="Hindu">Hindu</a> populations from the <a href="/wiki/Indian_subcontinent" title="Indian subcontinent">Indian subcontinent</a>, including that from <a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a>, <a href="/wiki/Nepal" title="Nepal">Nepal</a> and <a href="/wiki/Pakistan" title="Pakistan">Pakistan</a>. Outside the Indian subcontinent, this includes <a href="/wiki/Fiji" title="Fiji">Fiji</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mauritius" title="Mauritius">Mauritius</a>, <a href="/wiki/South_Africa" title="South Africa">South Africa</a>, <a href="/wiki/Canada" title="Canada">Canada</a>, <a href="/wiki/Guyana" title="Guyana">Guyana</a>, <a href="/wiki/Suriname" title="Suriname">Suriname</a>, <a href="/wiki/Trinidad_and_Tobago" title="Trinidad and Tobago">Trinidad and Tobago</a>, <a href="/wiki/Great_Britain" title="Great Britain">Great Britain</a>, the <a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a>. Some <a href="/wiki/Asia" title="Asia">Asian</a> cultures have similar drama traditions based on the Ramayana, for instance the <a href="/wiki/Phra_Lak_Phra_Lam" title="Phra Lak Phra Lam">Phra Lak Phra Lam</a> (Lak and Lam are the Laotian names for <a href="/wiki/Lakshmana" title="Lakshmana">Lakshman</a> and Ram, respectively) <a href="/wiki/Dance_and_theater_of_Laos" title="Dance and theater of Laos" class="mw-redirect">folkplay of Laos and northeastern Thailand</a>.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ramlila&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: References">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-0"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/490691/ramlila">Ramlila</a> <i><a href="/wiki/Britannica.com" title="Britannica.com" class="mw-redirect">Britannica.com</a></i>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=Sv7Uk0UcdM8C&amp;pg=PA44&amp;dq=Jatra+bengal&amp;as_brr=0">Ramlila</a> <i>Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle</i>, by Asha Kasbekar. Published by ABC-CLIO, 2006. <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1851096361" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 1-85109-636-1</a>. <i>Page 42</i>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.indiayogi.com/content/festivals/ramlila.aspx">Ramlila: Spectator-participants in God's life</a> indiayogi.com</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-inti-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-inti_3-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-inti_3-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=0FvH1aCXETwC&amp;pg=PA48&amp;dq=Ramlila&amp;as_brr=0">The Epics in Bhakti Tradition</a> <i>The Intimate Other: Love Divine in Indic Religions</i>, by Anna S. King, J. L. Brockington. Published by Orient Blackswan, 2005. <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/8125028013" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 81-250-2801-3</a>. <i>Page 48</i>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-un-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-un_4-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-un_4-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?RL=38">Ramlila - the Traditional Performance of the Ramayana</a> <i><a href="/wiki/UNESCO" title="UNESCO">UNESCO</a></i>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://ignca.nic.in/dvd_ramlila.htm">Ramlila - The traditional performance of Ramayana - Part I &amp; II</a> <i><a href="/wiki/Indira_Gandhi_National_Centre_for_the_Arts" title="Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts">Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts</a></i>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/oct/05ram.htm">Where Muslims keep Ram Lila alive</a> Sangita Bakaya in Lucknow, <i><a href="/wiki/Rediff.com" title="Rediff.com">Rediff.com</a></i>, October 5, 2008.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=au_Vk2VYyrkC&amp;pg=PA507&amp;dq=Ramlila&amp;as_brr=0">Ramlila</a> <i>South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia&#160;: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka</i>, by Peter J. Claus, Sarah Diamond, Margaret Ann Mills. Published by Taylor &amp; Francis, 2003. <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0415939194" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0-415-93919-4</a>. <i>Page 507</i> .</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.up-tourism.com/fair_festival/ramlila.htm">Ramlila</a> Department of Tourism, Government of UP, <a href="/wiki/Uttar_Pradesh" title="Uttar Pradesh">Uttar Pradesh</a>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bharatonline.com/uttar-pradesh/culture/ramlila.html">Ramlila in Uttar Pradesh</a> www.bharatonline.com.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.aryabhatt.com/fast_fair_festival/Festivals/Ram%20Lila.htm">Festivals of India - Ramlila</a> www.aryabhatt.com.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.hindu.com/2008/10/06/stories/2008100652180300.htm">Save this Ramlila</a> <i><a href="/wiki/The_Hindu" title="The Hindu">The Hindu</a></i>, Monday, October 6, 2008.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://sify.com/cities/fullstory.php?id=13589251">Live Ramlila telecast in 100 countries</a> <i><a href="/wiki/Sify.com" title="Sify.com" class="mw-redirect">Sify.com</a></i>, Thursday, October 14, 2004.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://varanasi.nic.in/culture/fair.html">Ramleela - Ramnagar</a> <i><a href="/wiki/Varanasi" title="Varanasi">Varanasi</a></i> Official website.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-eich-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-eich_14-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-eich_14-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-eich_14-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-eich_14-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-eich_14-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Mitra, Swati (2002). <i>Good Earth Varanasi city guide</i>. Eicher Goodearth Limited. p.&#160;216. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-81-87780-04-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-81-87780-04-5">978-81-87780-04-5</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Good+Earth+Varanasi+city+guide&amp;rft.aulast=Mitra&amp;rft.aufirst=Swati&amp;rft.au=Mitra%2C%26%2332%3BSwati&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B216&amp;rft.pub=Eicher+Goodearth+Limited&amp;rft.isbn=978-81-87780-04-5&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Ramlila"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/26/arts/26SCHE.html?pagewanted=1&amp;ei=5070&amp;en=eb222a8aebe766e2&amp;ex=1232514000">A Maharajah´s Festival for Body and Soul</a> <i><a href="/wiki/New_York_Times" title="New York Times" class="mw-redirect">New York Times</a></i>, Monday, March 30, 2009.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.stthomasu.ca/~parkhill/lila.htm">"What's Taking Place: Neighborhood Ramlilas in Banaras" by Thomas Parkhill</a> <i>Living Banaras: Hindu Religion in Cultural Context</i>, Bradley R. Hertel and Cynthia Ann Humes eds. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993. <a href="/wiki/St._Thomas_University_(New_Brunswick)" title="St. Thomas University (New Brunswick)">St. Thomas University</a>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-tex-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-tex_17-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.comm.unt.edu/histofperf/CGordon/The%20Performance.htm">Ramlila: The Performance in Ramnagar</a> <i><a href="/wiki/University_of_North_Texas" title="University of North Texas">University of North Texas</a></i>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Performative Circumstances, from the Avant Garde to Ramlila: from the avant garde to Ramlila</i>, by <a href="/wiki/Richard_Schechner" title="Richard Schechner">Richard Schechner</a>. Published by Seagull Books, 1983. <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0861320468" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0-86132-046-8</a>. <i>Page 238</i>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bharatonline.com/uttar-pradesh/fairs-festivals/varanasi-ramlila.html">Ramlila of Varanasi</a> <i>bharatonline.com</i>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-rit-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-rit_20-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-rit_20-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span&
ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Ravi</span></h1>
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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><p><b>Ravi</b> is a male <a href="/wiki/Given_name" title="Given name">given name</a>. It means <a href="/wiki/Sun" title="Sun">Sun</a>. Ravi may refer to:</p>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravivar" title="Ravivar" class="mw-redirect">Ravivar</a>, Sunday</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_River" title="Ravi River">Ravi River</a> (<a href="/wiki/Hindi_language" title="Hindi language" class="mw-redirect">Hindi</a>: <span lang="hi" xml:lang="hi">रावी</span>) (pronounced "Raavi"), a Himalayan river flowing through India and Pakistan</li>
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<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ravi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: People">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="People">People</span></h2>
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<th colspan="2" class="navbox-abovebelow" style="text-align:center; font-size:125%; font-weight:bold;">Ravi</th>
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<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Gender</th>
<td class="" style="">Male</td>
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<th colspan="2" class="navbox-abovebelow" style="text-align:center;">Origin</th>
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<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Word/Name</th>
<td class="" style="">Sanskrit</td>
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<tr class="">
<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Region of origin</th>
<td class="" style="">South Asia</td>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">Look up <i><b><a class="external text" href="//en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Ravi">Ravi</a></b></i> in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.</td>
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<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_(Ivar_Johansen)" title="Ravi (Ivar Johansen)">Ravi (Ivar Johansen)</a> (born 1976), a Norwegian artist</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_(music_director)" title="Ravi (music director)">Ravi (music director)</a> (1926–2012), an Indian film music director</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Baichwal" title="Ravi Baichwal">Ravi Baichwal</a>, Indian-Canadian journalist</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Bopara" title="Ravi Bopara">Ravi Bopara</a> (born 1985), an English cricketer</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Hutheesing" title="Ravi Hutheesing">Ravi Hutheesing</a>, musician (singer/songwriter, former guitarist of Hanson), aviator, lecturer</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Shankar" title="Ravi Shankar">Ravi Shankar</a> (born 1920), a sitar virtuoso</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Shankar_(spiritual_leader)" title="Ravi Shankar (spiritual leader)">Ravi Shankar (spiritual leader)</a> (born 1956), a spiritual leader and founder of the Art of Living Foundation</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Shastri" title="Ravi Shastri">Ravi Shastri</a> (born 1962), a former Indian cricketer</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Sood" title="Ravi Sood">Ravi Sood</a> (born 1976), a Canadian-born financier</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Raja_Ravi_Varma" title="Raja Ravi Varma">Raja Ravi Varma</a> (1848–1906), also known as Ravi Varma, Indian painter</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Zacharias" title="Ravi Zacharias">Ravi Zacharias</a> (born 1946), an Indian-born, Canadian-American evangelical Christian philosopher, apologist and evangelist</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dharun_Ravi" title="Dharun Ravi" class="mw-redirect">Dharun Ravi</a>, the defendant in a celebrated trial.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Teja" title="Ravi Teja">Ravi Teja Bhupatiraju</a>, an Indian actor who works mainly in Telugu films</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ravi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Fiction">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Fiction">Fiction</span></h2>
<ul>
<li>The in-training bookman in the manga <a href="/wiki/D.Gray-man" title="D.Gray-man">D.Gray-man</a>, also known as "Lavi" or "Rabi"</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Ravi_Lancers" title="The Ravi Lancers">The Ravi Lancers</a>, novel by <a href="/wiki/John_Masters" title="John Masters">John Masters</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ravi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
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<li><a href="/wiki/Ravindra_(disambiguation)" title="Ravindra (disambiguation)" class="mw-redirect">Ravindra (disambiguation)</a></li>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="padding: 0.25em 0.4em; font-style: italic;">This <a href="/wiki/Help:Disambiguation" title="Help:Disambiguation">disambiguation</a> page lists articles associated with the same title.<br />
<small>If an <a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:WhatLinksHere/Ravi&amp;namespace=0">internal link</a> led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.</small></td>
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ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Radha</span></h1>
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<table class="infobox" cellspacing="5" style="width:22em;">
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<th colspan="2" class="" style="text-align:center; font-size:125%; font-weight:bold; background:#FFC569;">Radha</th>
</tr>
<tr class="">
<td colspan="2" class="" style="text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/File:Radharani3.jpg" class="image" title="A Rajasthani style painting of Radha."><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7b/Radharani3.jpg/250px-Radharani3.jpg" width="250" height="378" /></a><br />
<span style="">A <a href="/wiki/Rajasthan" title="Rajasthan">Rajasthani</a> style painting of Radha.</span></td>
</tr>
<tr class="">
<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Devanagari" title="Devanagari">Devanagari</a></th>
<td class="" style="">राधा</td>
</tr>
<tr class="">
<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Sanskrit" title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit</a> Transliteration</th>
<td class="" style="">Rādhā</td>
</tr>
<tr class="">
<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Tamil_script" title="Tamil script" class="mw-redirect">Tamil script</a></th>
<td class="" style="">Radaa</td>
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<p><b>Radha</b> (Devanagari: राधा, <a href="/wiki/International_Alphabet_of_Sanskrit_Transliteration" title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration">IAST</a>: Rādhā), also called Radhika, Radharani and Radhikarani, is the childhood friend and lover of <a href="/wiki/Krishna" title="Krishna">Krishna</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Bhagavata_Purana" title="Bhagavata Purana">Bhagavata Purana</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/Gita_Govinda" title="Gita Govinda">Gita Govinda</a> of the <a href="/wiki/Vaisnava" title="Vaisnava" class="mw-redirect">Vaisnava</a> traditions of <a href="/wiki/Hinduism" title="Hinduism">Hinduism</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> Radha is almost always depicted alongside Krishna and features prominently within the theology of today's <a href="/wiki/Gaudiya_Vaishnava" title="Gaudiya Vaishnava" class="mw-redirect">Gaudiya Vaishnava</a> sect, which regards Radha as the original <i>Goddess</i> or <i><a href="/wiki/Shakti" title="Shakti">Shakti</a></i>. Radha is also the principal object of worship in the <a href="/wiki/Nimbarka_Sampradaya" title="Nimbarka Sampradaya">Nimbarka Sampradaya</a>, as <a href="/wiki/Nimbarka" title="Nimbarka">Nimbarka</a>, the founder of the tradition, declared that Radha and Krishna together constitute the absolute truth.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> Radha's relationship with Krishna is given in further detail within texts such as the <a href="/wiki/Brahma_Vaivarta_Purana" title="Brahma Vaivarta Purana">Brahma Vaivarta Purana</a>, <a href="/wiki/Garga_Samhita" title="Garga Samhita">Garga Samhita</a> and <a href="/w/index.php?title=Brihad_Gautamiya_tantra&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Brihad Gautamiya tantra (page does not exist)">Brihad Gautamiya tantra</a>.</p>
<p>Radha is often referred to as <b>Rādhārānī</b> or "Radhika" in speech, prefixed with the respectful term 'Srimati' by devout followers.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
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<h2>Contents</h2>
</div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Radha_the_Gopi"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Radha the Gopi</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Within_Vaishnavism"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Within Vaishnavism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Birth"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Birth</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Nimbarka"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Nimbarka</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Chaitanya_Mahaprabhu"><span class="tocnumber">1.4</span> <span class="toctext">Chaitanya Mahaprabhu</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#Names_.26_Worship"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Names &amp; Worship</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Temples_dedicated_to_Radha"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Temples dedicated to Radha</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Mantras_and_shloks"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Mantras and shloks</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#Quotations_about_Radha"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Quotations about Radha</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a href="#Footnotes"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Footnotes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#General_Information"><span class="tocnumber">8.1</span> <span class="toctext">General Information</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Festivals"><span class="tocnumber">8.2</span> <span class="toctext">Festivals</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Names_of_Radha"><span class="tocnumber">8.3</span> <span class="toctext">Names of Radha</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Further_resources"><span class="tocnumber">8.4</span> <span class="toctext">Further resources</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
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<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Radha the Gopi">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Radha_the_Gopi">Radha the Gopi</span></h2>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Brooklyn_Museum_-_Radha_Pining_for_Her_Beloved_Page_from_a_dated_Rasikapriya_Series.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ce/Brooklyn_Museum_-_Radha_Pining_for_Her_Beloved_Page_from_a_dated_Rasikapriya_Series.jpg/220px-Brooklyn_Museum_-_Radha_Pining_for_Her_Beloved_Page_from_a_dated_Rasikapriya_Series.jpg" width="220" height="286" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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Brooklyn Museum - Radha Pining for Her Beloved Page from a dated Rasikapriya Series</div>
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<p>In the story of <a href="/wiki/Krishna" title="Krishna">Krishna</a>, as told in the <a href="/wiki/Mahabharata" title="Mahabharata">Mahabharata</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Bhagavata_Purana" title="Bhagavata Purana">Bhagavata Purana</a>, he spends much of his childhood in the company of young cow-herd girls, called <a href="/wiki/Gopis" title="Gopis" class="mw-redirect">Gopis</a> in the village of Vrindavan. Krishna left his native place at the age of twelve for study at gurukul .The Mahabharata does not describe Krishna's earlier life in Vrindavan in much detail, and focuses more on the later battle of <a href="/wiki/Kurukshetra" title="Kurukshetra">Kurukshetra</a> but within the Bhagavata Purana the child-hood pastimes of Krishna are described very vividly. Within the Bhagavata Purana, Radha is not mentioned by name but is alluded to within the tenth chapter of the text as one of the gopis whom Krishna plays with during his upbringing as a young boy. <a href="/wiki/Krishna" title="Krishna">Krishna</a> left Vrindavan for Mathura at the age of 10 years and 7 months according to <a href="/wiki/Bhagavata_Purana" title="Bhagavata Purana">Bhagavata Purana</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> So Radha is assumed to be also 10 years old or less when Krishna left Vrindavan. It is in later texts such as the <a href="/wiki/Gita_Govinda" title="Gita Govinda">Gita Govinda</a> where we find the story of Radha given in more detail.</p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Within Vaishnavism">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Within_Vaishnavism">Within Vaishnavism</span></h3>
<div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">See also: <a href="/wiki/Radha_Krishna" title="Radha Krishna">Radha Krishna</a></div>
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Radha with Krishna, as painted by <a href="/wiki/Raja_Ravi_Varma" title="Raja Ravi Varma">Raja Ravi Varma</a></div>
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<i>Krishna and Radha Seated on a Terrace</i> - <a href="/wiki/Brooklyn_Museum" title="Brooklyn Museum">Brooklyn Museum</a></div>
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<p>In the <a href="/wiki/Vaishnava" title="Vaishnava" class="mw-redirect">Vaishnava</a> devotional or <a href="/wiki/Bhakti" title="Bhakti">bhakti</a> traditions of <a href="/wiki/Hinduism" title="Hinduism">Hinduism</a> that focus on Krishna, Radha is Krishna's friend and advisor. For some of the adherents of these traditions, her importance approaches or even exceeds that of Krishna. She is considered to be his original <a href="/wiki/Shakti" title="Shakti">shakti</a>, the supreme goddess in both the <a href="/wiki/Nimbarka_Sampradaya" title="Nimbarka Sampradaya">Nimbarka Sampradaya</a> and following the advent of <a href="/wiki/Chaitanya_Mahaprabhu" title="Chaitanya Mahaprabhu">Chaitanya Mahaprabhu</a> also within the <a href="/wiki/Gaudiya_Vaishnavism" title="Gaudiya Vaishnavism">Gaudiya Vaishnava</a> tradition. Other <a href="/wiki/Gopi" title="Gopi">gopis</a> are usually considered to be her maidservants, with Radha having the prominent position of Krishna's favour "Among the eternal associates of the Lord the gopis are the most exhalted, and among the gopis <i>Srimati Radharani is the best</i>. It has been mentioned in the narration of the Skanda Purana that out of many thousands of gopis, 16,000 are prominent. Out of these, 108 are important, and out of 108, eight are principal. Out of eight gopis, Radharani and Candravali are chief, and out of these two <i>Srimati Radharani is superior</i>."<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Her connection to Krishna is of two types: <i>svakiya-rasa</i> (married relationship) and <i>parakiya-rasa</i> (a relationship signified with eternal mental "love"). The Gaudiya tradition focuses upon <i>parakiya-rasa</i> as the highest form of love, wherein Radha and Krishna share thoughts even through separation. The love the gopis feel for Krishna is also described in this esoteric manner as the highest platform of spontaneous love of God, and not of a sexual nature.</p>
<p>Proponents of the Gaudiya and Nimbarka schools of Vaishnavism give the highly <a href="/wiki/Esoteric" title="Esoteric" class="mw-redirect">esoteric</a> nature of Radha's relationship to Krishna as the reason why her story is not mentioned in detail in the other Puranic texts.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Birth">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Birth">Birth</span></h3>
<p>Radha was the daughter of Vrishbhanu <a href="/wiki/Gurjar" title="Gurjar">Gurjar</a> who was king Suchandra in his previous life. Suchandra and his wife had acquired a boon from Brahmaji that in the Dwapar age Shri Laxmi will be born as a daughter to them in the form of Radha. King Suchendra and Queen Kalavati only were reborn as Vrishbhanu and Kirtikumari and Laxmiji was incarnated as Radha.</p>
<p>It is said<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from October 2011">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> that at Radha’s birth, Devarshi Narad himself went and met Vrishbhanu and informed him, “This girl’s beauty and nature is divine. All the houses, wherever her footprints are, Lord Narayan with all other deities will reside. Nurture this girl thinking her to be a Goddess.” According to Naradji’s advice, Vrishbhanu nurtured Radha with great love and care. Nandbaba who lived in the nearby village was friends with Vrishbanu. Once during the festival of Holi; Vrishbanu went to Gokul to meet Nandrai. At Nandrai and Yashoda’s house Krishna (who was growing up as their son) met Radha. Their union was divine, phenomenal and incessant<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from October 2011">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup>. This meeting was Radha and Krishna’s first meeting which became eternal.<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from October 2011">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>Radha’s love towards Krishna in the terrestrial or customary meaning is not just the relation between a man and woman. The feeling of this love is divine and phenomenal which gives this love a pious form. The philosophical side of this reduces the distance of the support and supportive, also the difference between the worshipper and worshipful is not there. Krishna is the life of Vraj; Radha is the soul of Krishna. That is why, it is said, “Atma Tu Radhika Tasya” (Radha, you are His soul). One form of Radha is, she is a devotee, worshipper of Krishna and in the second form she is the worshipful, devoted by Krishna. ‘Aradhyate Asau itii Radha.’ Radha – Krishna’s love is the symbol of the feeling of being united. When two souls are united, the difference of the other or the second vanishes.Her father Vrsabhanu was the king of cowherds Gop. Vrsabhanu was a partial incarnation of Lord Narayana while her mother Kalavati was a partial incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi.</p>
<p>Her worship is especially prominent in <a href="/wiki/Vrindavan" title="Vrindavan">Vrindavan</a>, the place where Krishna is said to have lived. Wherein Her importance surpasses even the importance of Krishna. Radha's love for Krishna is held within Gaudiya Vaishnavism as the most perfect primarily because of its endless and unconditional nature. Thus she is the most important friend of Krishna, 'His heart and soul', and His 'hladini-shakti' (mental companion potency).</p>
<p>In the Brihad-Gautamiya Tantra, Radharani is described as follows: "The transcendental <a href="/wiki/Goddess" title="Goddess">goddess</a> Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krishna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord."</p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Nimbarka">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Nimbarka">Nimbarka</span></h3>
<p><a href="/wiki/Nimbarka" title="Nimbarka">Nimbarka</a> was the first <a href="/wiki/Vaishnava" title="Vaishnava" class="mw-redirect">Vaishnava</a> <a href="/wiki/Acharya" title="Acharya">acharya</a> to disseminate teachings about Radha.<sup id="cite_ref-Singh2004_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Singh2004-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Kinsley1972_9-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kinsley1972-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Chaitanya_Mahaprabhu">Chaitanya Mahaprabhu</span></h3>
<p>The Bengali saint <a href="/wiki/Chaitanya_Mahaprabhu" title="Chaitanya Mahaprabhu">Chaitanya Mahaprabhu</a> (1486–1534) is believed by many (see especially the modern-day <a href="/wiki/ISKCON" title="ISKCON" class="mw-redirect">ISKCON</a> movement) to be an incarnation of both Radha and Krishna, simultaneously in one form. Throughout his life, Chaitanya lived as a devotee of <a href="/wiki/Vaishnava" title="Vaishnava" class="mw-redirect">Vaishnava</a> tradition, not openly claiming to be any form of <a href="/wiki/Avatar" title="Avatar">Avatar</a>, but in his biographies it is claimed that he revealed his <i>divine</i> form to some of his closer associates.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Names &amp; Worship">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Names_.26_Worship">Names &amp; Worship</span></h2>
<p>Radha has many epithets describing her qualities and characteristics.</p>
<ul>
<li><b>Radhika</b> - This is the most common epithet, meaning she whose worship of the Krishna is all powerful. She who embodies supreme focus and mental clarity. The incarnation of the goddess Lakshmi. Beauty, intelligence, and good fortuned one.</li>
<li><b>Gandharvi</b> - Expert singer<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
<li><b>Govinda-nandini</b> - She who gives happiness to <a href="/wiki/Govinda" title="Govinda">Govinda</a> (Krishna)</li>
<li><b>Govinda-mohini</b> - She who mystifies Govinda</li>
<li><b>Govinda-sarvasva</b> - One to whom Govinda is the all-in-all, or everything.</li>
<li><b>Sarva-kanta Shiromani</b> - The crown jewel of all Krishna's consorts</li>
<li><b>Krishnamayi</b> - The one who sees Krishna both within and without</li>
<li><b>Madan-Mohan-Mohini</b> - Within Gaudiya tradition Krishna (as the Supreme Person) is believed to be the enchanter of all living beings, including even <a href="/wiki/Kamadeva" title="Kamadeva">Kamadeva</a> (Madan) - The god of attraction. Because Radha has the unique position of being able to enchant even Krishna she is therefore known as Madan-Mohan-Mohini: <i>the enchanter of the enchanter of Cupid</i>.</li>
<li><b>Aradhana</b> - The root name of Radharani, meaning one who excels in worshiping Krishna</li>
<li><b>Sarva-lakshmi</b> - The original source of all the goddesses of fortune</li>
<li><b>Vrshabhanu-nandini</b> - Daughter of Vrishabanu</li>
<li><b>Vrshabhanu-suta</b> - Daughter of Vrishabanu</li>
<li><b>Vrshabhanu-Dulari</b> - loving daughter of Vrishabanu</li>
<li><b>Vrndavaneshvari</b> - Queen of <a href="/wiki/Vrindavana" title="Vrindavana" class="mw-redirect">Vrindavana</a></li>
<li><b>Lalita-Sakhi</b> - Friend of the gopi <a href="/wiki/Lalita_(gopi)" title="Lalita (gopi)">Lalita</a></li>
<li><b>Gokula-Taruni</b> - She whom all young girls of <a href="/wiki/Gokul" title="Gokul">Gokul</a> worship</li>
<li><b>Damodara Rati</b> - She who dresses herself to please <a href="/wiki/Damodar_(name_of_Krishna)" title="Damodar (name of Krishna)">Damodara</a> (Krishna)</li>
<li><b>Radharani</b> – Radha the queen</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/RadhaKrishna" title="RadhaKrishna" class="mw-redirect">RadhaKrishna</a></b> - Krishna Himself in the form of Radha (Worship of Krishna with Radha)</li>
<li><b>Vrajrani</b> - Queen of Vraj ( Krishna being the king)</li>
<li><b>Swaminiji</b>- The companion of Krishna</li>
<li><b>Karika</b>_Mix form of Krishna and Radha; Verse; Reborn</li>
<li><b>Ramika</b>_Reborn; New Face; Modern</li>
<li><b>Sakalepsitdaatri</b>- She fulfills all desires of her devotees.</li>
<li><b>Raaseshwari</b> - The goddess of raas (folk-dance).</li>
<li><b>Sarveshwari</b> - The one who is goddess of all.</li>
<li><b>Raj- Rajeshwari</b> - The goddess of god.</li>
<li><b>Ladali</b> - The beloved.</li>
<li><b>Barsaane Wali</b> - The one who lives at Barsaana.</li>
<li><b>Krishna-Priya</b> - beloved of lord Krishna.</li>
<li><b>Haridaas-Dulari</b> - beloved of swami Haridas</li>
</ul>
<p>One of her names, <i>Hara</i> (mentioned in Narada-pancaratra 5.5.59), in vocative <i>Hare</i>, forms a part of the <a href="/wiki/Hare_Krishna_(mantra)" title="Hare Krishna (mantra)">Hare Krishna</a> 'Maha-Mantra', one of the most popular Vedic mantras, especially amongst <a href="/wiki/Gaudiya_Vaishnavas" title="Gaudiya Vaishnavas" class="mw-redirect">Gaudiya Vaishnavas</a>. Radharani's names hold a place of prime importance within Gaudiya Vaishnava religious practices.</p>
<p>View Complete Namavali with essence of each name of Radharani -<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.radhavallabh.com/radha.htm#namavali">100 auspicious names in IPA Sanskrit</a>.</p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Temples dedicated to Radha">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Temples_dedicated_to_Radha">Temples dedicated to Radha</span></h3>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Barsana" title="Barsana">Barsana</a> and <a href="/wiki/Vrindavan" title="Vrindavan">Vrindavan</a> in <a href="/wiki/Mathura_District" title="Mathura District" class="mw-redirect">Mathura District</a>, Northern India contain a large number of temples dedicated to both Radha and Krishna, including the Radhavallabh Temple.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
<li>The <a href="/wiki/Radha_Madhav_Dham#Shree_Raseshwari_Radha_Rani_Temple" title="Radha Madhav Dham">Shree Raseshwari Radha Rani Temple</a> at <a href="/wiki/Radha_Madhav_Dham" title="Radha Madhav Dham">Radha Madhav Dham</a> in <a href="/wiki/Austin,_Texas" title="Austin, Texas">Austin, Texas</a>, USA, established by <a href="/wiki/Jagadguru_Kripalu_Maharaj" title="Jagadguru Kripalu Maharaj" class="mw-redirect">Jagadguru Shree Kripaluji Maharaj</a>, is one of the largest Hindu Temple complexes in the <a href="/wiki/Western_Hemisphere" title="Western Hemisphere">Western Hemisphere</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-hua_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-hua-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup> and the largest in <a href="/wiki/North_America" title="North America">North America</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-ciment_14-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ciment-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-HyltonandRosie_15-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-HyltonandRosie-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-texas-monthly_16-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-texas-monthly-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
</ul>
<p>Temple Deities in India and abroad are generally named in order of Radharani first and then Krishna. Krishna is approachable through the mercy of Srimati Radharani and no one else. So for example, if one were to enter the <a href="/wiki/Govinda" title="Govinda">Govindaji</a> temple in Vrindavan the Deities are named Radha Govinda and devotees of Krishna would pray to Radha and Govinda not just Krishna. This is because Krishna is controlled by Radharani's love.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Mantras and shloks">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Mantras_and_shloks">Mantras and shloks</span></h2>
<ul>
<li>"Radha tu meri swamini , main Radhey ko daas, janam janam mohe dijiye , shri vrindavan ko vaas."</li>
<li>"Sab Dwaran ko chodd kar , aayo tere dwar, Shri Vrshbhanu-ki-ladali meri aur nihaar."</li>
<li>"Radha sadhyam, saadhnam yasya radha , Mantro radha mantra daatri ch Radha, Sarvam Radha , jeevanam yasya Radha , Radha radha vaachkin tasya shesham."</li>
<li>"Radhey tu badbhagini, kaun tapasya kinhi, Teen lok taaran taran, hain radhey tere aadheen."</li>
<li>"Radhe Jaya Jaya Madhava Dayite, Gokula taruni mandala mahite" By Rupa Gosvami</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Quotations about Radha">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Quotations_about_Radha">Quotations about Radha</span></h2>
<ul>
<li>"Although the effulgence of the moon is brilliant initially at night, in the daytime it fades away. Similarly, although the lotus is beautiful during the daytime, at night it closes. But, O My friend, the face of My most dear Srimati Radharani is always bright and beautiful, both day and night. Therefore, to what can Her face be compared?" (Vidagdha-madhava 5.20)</li>
<li>"When Srimati Radharani smiles, waves of joy overtake Her cheeks, and Her arched eyebrows dance like the bow of Cupid. Her glance is so enchanting that it is like a dancing bumblebee, moving unsteadily due to intoxication. That bee has bitten the whorl of My heart." (Vidagdha-madhava 2.51)</li>
<li>"Just as Srimati Radharani is most dear to Krishna, Her bathing pond is similarly dear. Of all the gopis, She is the most beloved of the Lord." (<a href="/wiki/Padma_Purana" title="Padma Purana">Padma Purana</a>)</li>
<li>"The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krishna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord." (Brihad-gautamiya-tantra)</li>
<li>"Among all persons, it is Sri Radha in whose company Lord Madhava is especially glorious, as She is especially glorious in His." (Rig-parisishta)</li>
<li>"Radharani is the source of spiritual inspiration" (<a href="/wiki/A.C._Bhaktivedanta_Swami_Prabhupada" title="A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada" class="mw-redirect">A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada</a>)</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Neela_Devi_(Nappinnai)" title="Neela Devi (Nappinnai)" class="mw-redirect">Neela Devi (Nappinnai)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chaitanya_Mahaprabhu" title="Chaitanya Mahaprabhu">Chaitanya Mahaprabhu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gaudiya_Vaishnavism" title="Gaudiya Vaishnavism">Gaudiya Vaishnavism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hare_Krishna_(mantra)" title="Hare Krishna (mantra)">Hare Krishna (mantra)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lakshmi" title="Lakshmi">Lakshmi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nimbarka_Sampradaya" title="Nimbarka Sampradaya">Nimbarka Sampradaya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rukmini" title="Rukmini">Rukmini</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shakti" title="Shakti">Shakti</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shri_Hith_Harivansh_Mahaprabhu" title="Shri Hith Harivansh Mahaprabhu" class="mw-redirect">Shri Hith Harivansh Mahaprabhu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sita" title="Sita">Sita</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2>
<ul>
<li><i>Krsna: The Supreme Personality of Godhead</i> (<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0892133546" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0-89213-354-6</a>) by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada</li>
<li><i>Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions</i> (<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/8120803795" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 81-208-0379-5</a>) by David Kinsley</li>
<li>Hawley J.S. &amp; D.M. Wulff (ed.) (1986) <i>The Divine Consort: Radha and the Goddesses of India</i>, Beacon Press, Boston, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/080701303X" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0-8070-1303-X</a>.</li>
<li>Radha by Krishna Dharabasi, a Nepali novel awarded with Madan Puraskar, Most prestigious literary award.</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Radha&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Footnotes">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Footnotes">Footnotes</span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-0"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Beck, Guy L. (2005). <i>Alternative Krishnas: regional and vernacular variations on a Hindu deity</i>. Albany, N.Y: State University of New York Press. pp.&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=0SJ73GHSCF8C&amp;pg=PA68&amp;dq=Radha+is+supreme&amp;ei=PTeWSLa_BouCjwGTyY2sDQ&amp;client=firefox-a&amp;sig=ACfU3U0UsEEDGzKto2Ryf-_UW0R2kzuyRw">p. 68</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-7914-6415-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-7914-6415-6">0-7914-6415-6</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Alternative+Krishnas%3A+regional+and+vernacular+variations+on+a+Hindu+deity&amp;rft.aulast=Beck%2C+Guy+L.&amp;rft.au=Beck%2C+Guy+L.&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B%5Bhttp%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D0SJ73GHSCF8C%26pg%3DPA68%26dq%3DRadha%2Bis%2Bsupreme%26ei%3DPTeWSLa_BouCjwGTyY2sDQ%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sig%3DACfU3U0UsEEDGzKto2Ryf-_UW0R2kzuyRw+p.+68%5D&amp;rft.place=Albany%2C+N.Y&amp;rft.pub=State+University+of+New+York+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0-7914-6415-6&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Radha"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">H.Wilson, 'English Translation', Motilal Banarsidas Publishers, 1990 reprint.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Encyclopaedia of Hindu gods and goddesses By Suresh Chandra <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.google.co.in/books?id=mfTE6kpz6XEC&amp;pg=PA198&amp;dq=goddess+lakshmi">http://books.google.co.in/books?id=mfTE6kpz6XEC&amp;pg=PA198&amp;dq=goddess+lakshmi</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.festivalsinindia.net/goddesses/radha.html">"Radha - Goddess Radha, Sri Radharani, Radha-Krishna, Radhika"</a>. Festivalsinindia.net<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.festivalsinindia.net/goddesses/radha.html">http://www.festivalsinindia.net/goddesses/radha.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2010-11-13</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Radha+-+Goddess+Radha%2C+Sri+Radharani%2C+Radha-Krishna%2C+Radhika&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Festivalsinindia.net&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.festivalsinindia.net%2Fgoddesses%2Fradha.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Radha"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Radha in Hinduism, the favourite mistress of Krishna. In devotional religion she represents the longing of the human soul for God: The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 2006, by ELIZABETH KNOWLES</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.vedabase.net/sb/10/45/3/en">"Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 10 Chapter 45 Verse 3"</a>. Vedabase.net<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.vedabase.net/sb/10/45/3/en">http://www.vedabase.net/sb/10/45/3/en</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2010-11-13</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Srimad+Bhagavatam+Canto+10+Chapter+45+Verse+3&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Vedabase.net&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vedabase.net%2Fsb%2F10%2F45%2F3%2Fen&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Radha"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Swami B.G. Narasingha. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://gosai.com/writings/sri-gayatri-mantrartha-dipika-illuminations-on-the-essential-meaning-of-gayatri?quicktabs_1=1">"Sri Gayatri Mantrartha Dipika - Illuminations on the Essential Meaning of Gayatri | Sri Narasingha Chaitanya Ashram"</a>. Gosai.com<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://gosai.com/writings/sri-gayatri-mantrartha-dipika-illuminations-on-the-essential-meaning-of-gayatri?quicktabs_1=1">http://gosai.com/writings/sri-gayatri-mantrartha-dipika-illuminations-on-the-essential-meaning-of-gayatri?quicktabs_1=1</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2010-11-13</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Sri+Gayatri+Mantrartha+Dipika+-+Illuminations+on+the+Essential+Meaning+of+Gayatri+%26%23124%3B+Sri+Narasingha+Chaitanya+Ashram&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Swami+B.G.+Narasingha&amp;rft.au=Swami+B.G.+Narasingha&amp;rft.pub=Gosai.com&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fgosai.com%2Fwritings%2Fsri-gayatri-mantrartha-dipika-illuminations-on-the-essential-meaning-of-gayatri%3Fquicktabs_1%3D1&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Radha"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Swami_Tripurari" title="Swami Tripurari" class="mw-redirect">Swami Tripurari</a>, "<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.swami.org/pages/sanga/1999/1999_4.php">Sri Radha: Indirectly the Absolute</a>", <i>Sanga</i>, 1999.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Singh2004-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Singh2004_8-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Singh, K.B. (2004). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=2cIOqGcvHqoC&amp;pg=PA125&amp;dq=Nimbarka+Radha+first">"Manipur Vaishnavism: A Sociological Interpretat1on"</a>. <i>Sociology of Religion in India</i>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-7619-9781-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7619-9781-8">978-0-7619-9781-8</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/?id=2cIOqGcvHqoC&amp;pg=PA125&amp;dq=Nimbarka+Radha+first">http://books.google.com/?id=2cIOqGcvHqoC&amp;pg=PA125&amp;dq=Nimbarka+Radha+first</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-05-03</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Manipur+Vaishnavism%3A+A+Sociological+Interpretat1on&amp;rft.jtitle=Sociology+of+Religion+in+India&amp;rft.aulast=Singh%2C+K.B.&amp;rft.au=Singh%2C+K.B.&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7619-9781-8&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3D2cIOqGcvHqoC%26pg%3DPA125%26dq%3DNimbarka%2BRadha%2Bfirst&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Radha"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Kinsley1972-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Kinsley1972_9-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Kinsley, D. (2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amp;lr=&amp;ie=UTF-8&amp;sa=G&amp;oi=qs&amp;q=nimbarka+radha+first+author:d-sarma">"Without Krsna There Is No Song"</a>. <i>History of Religions</i> <b>12</b> (2): 149. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">DOI</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F462672">10.1086/462672</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amp;lr=&amp;ie=UTF-8&amp;sa=G&amp;oi=qs&amp;q=nimbarka+radha+first+author:d-sarma">http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amp;lr=&amp;ie=UTF-8&amp;sa=G&amp;oi=qs&amp;q=nimbarka+radha+first+author:d-sarma</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-05-03</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Without+Krsna+There+Is+No+Song&amp;rft.jtitle=History+of+Religions&amp;rft.aulast=Kinsley%2C+D.&amp;rft.au=K
ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Rohini</span></h1>
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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><p><b>Rohini</b> may refer to:</p>
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<li><a href="/wiki/Rohini_(nakshatra)" title="Rohini (nakshatra)" class="mw-redirect">Rohini (nakshatra)</a>, a lunar mansion in Indian astronomy corresponding to Aldebaran</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rohini_Devi" title="Rohini Devi">Rohini Devi</a>, a consort of Vasudeva and mother of Balarama and Subhadra in Hindu mythology</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rohini_(satellite)" title="Rohini (satellite)">Rohini (satellite)</a>, a series of Indian space satellites</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rohini_sounding_rocket_series" title="Rohini sounding rocket series" class="mw-redirect">Rohini sounding rocket series</a>, Indian rockets developed for meteorological and atmospheric study purposes</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rohini_Sub_City" title="Rohini Sub City">Rohini Sub City</a>, a residential sub city in Northwest Delhi</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rohini_(actress)" title="Rohini (actress)">Rohini (actress)</a>, actor from south Indian films, notably Malayalam and Tamil films during 1980s and 90s</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rohni_River" title="Rohni River">Rohni River</a>, or Rohini River, in South Central Nepal, tributary to the West Rapti River</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rohini_(West_Bengal)" title="Rohini (West Bengal)">Rohini (West Bengal)</a>, a village in West Bengal, India</li>
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ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Rag</span></h1>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">Look up <i><b><a class="external text" href="//en.wiktionary.org/wiki/rag">rag</a></b></i> in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.</td>
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<p><b>Rag</b> or <b>rags</b> may refer to:</p>
<ul>
<li>A torn, threadbare or otherwise inferior piece of <a href="/wiki/Textile" title="Textile">textile</a>.</li>
<li>A piece of <a href="/wiki/Ragtime" title="Ragtime">ragtime</a> music.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Raga" title="Raga">Raga</a>, the musical scale of a composition in Indian classical music.</li>
<li>Rag. a title for people holding high school degrees in business economics, see <a href="/wiki/Italian_honorifics" title="Italian honorifics">Italian honorifics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rag_(typography)" title="Rag (typography)" class="mw-redirect">Rag (typography)</a>, the ragged edge of a block of text.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rag_(newspaper)" title="Rag (newspaper)" class="mw-redirect">Rag (newspaper)</a>, a newspaper that tends to emphasize topics such as sensational crime stories, astrology, gossip columns about the personal lives of celebrities and sports stars</li>
<li>The <a href="/wiki/Student_Rags" title="Student Rags" class="mw-redirect">Student Rags</a> which took place between King's College London and University College London from the 1820s.</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>surname</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C4%92riks_Rags" title="Ēriks Rags">Ēriks Rags</a> (born 1975), Latvian javelin thrower.</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>given name</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rags_Matthews" title="Rags Matthews">Rags Matthews</a> (1905–1999), All-American football player.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rags_Morales" title="Rags Morales">Rags Morales</a>, American comic book artist.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rags_Ragland" title="Rags Ragland">Rags Ragland</a> (1905–1946), an American character actor.</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>as a title or proper name</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rags_(musical)" title="Rags (musical)"><i>Rags</i> (musical)</a>, a Broadway musical.</li>
<li><a href="/w/index.php?title=Rags_(group_of_dancers)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rags (group of dancers) (page does not exist)">Rags (group of dancers)</a> - a Norwegian group of dancers in the period 1984 - 1992</li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/The_Rag" title="The Rag">The Rag</a></i>, an underground paper published in Austin, Texas from 1966–1977.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravi_Khote" title="Ravi Khote">Ravi Khote</a>, or "Rags", Indian singer.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rags_(dog)" title="Rags (dog)">Rags (dog)</a> - 1st Infantry Division (United States) mascot in World War I.</li>
<li>Rags (Spin City) - the dog from <a href="/wiki/Spin_City" title="Spin City">Spin City</a> television show.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ragnar%C3%B6k_(MUD)" title="Ragnarök (MUD)">Ragnarök (MUD)</a>, an online role-playing game</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rag_(student_society)" title="Rag (student society)">Rag (student society)</a>, a student fund raising charitable group.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rags_(Doctor_Who)" title="Rags (Doctor Who)"><i>Rags</i> (Doctor Who)</a>, a Doctor Who novel.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rags_(film)" title="Rags (film)"><i>Rags</i> (film)</a>, a Nickelodeon original film</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>acronym RAGS</dt>
</dl>
<div class="rellink">Further information: <a href="/wiki/RAG_(disambiguation)" title="RAG (disambiguation)" class="mw-redirect">RAG (disambiguation)</a></div>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Riaz_Ahmed_Gohar_Shahi" title="Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi">Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi</a> known as RAGS.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Recombination_activating_gene" title="Recombination activating gene">Recombination activating gene</a>, encode enzymes involved in VDJ recombination.</li>
<li>RAGS International, the former name of the <a href="/wiki/Messiah_Foundation_International" title="Messiah Foundation International">Messiah Foundation International</a>.</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>slang</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li>A slang term for a <a href="/wiki/Sanitary_napkin" title="Sanitary napkin">sanitary napkin</a> used by a menstruating woman while <i>on the rag</i>.</li>
<li>The stringy central portion and membranous walls of a citrus <a href="/wiki/Fruit" title="Fruit">fruit</a>.</li>
<li>A slang nickname for the <a href="/wiki/Manchester_United" title="Manchester United" class="mw-redirect">Manchester United</a>, used by detractor.</li>
<li>Slang for a <a href="/wiki/Newspaper" title="Newspaper">newspaper</a>, often used in a pejorative sense to describe a <a href="/wiki/Tabloid_(newspaper_format)" title="Tabloid (newspaper format)">tabloid</a> or other down-market publication.</li>
<li>A colloquial term for the <a href="/wiki/Front_curtain" title="Front curtain">front curtain</a> of a theater.</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Rag&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/RAG_(disambiguation)" title="RAG (disambiguation)" class="mw-redirect">RAG (disambiguation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Do-rag" title="Do-rag">Do-rag</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Bandanna" title="Bandanna" class="mw-redirect">bandanna</a> shaped, folded, and tailored by its manufacturer so as to conform to the wearer's head.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ragging" title="Ragging">Ragging</a>, is a form of abuse on newcomers to educational institutions in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, similar to hazing.</li>
</ul>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="padding: 0.25em 0.4em; font-style: italic;">This <a href="/wiki/Help:Disambiguation" title="Help:Disambiguation">disambiguation</a> page lists articles associated with the same title.<br />
<small>If an <a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:WhatLinksHere/Rag&amp;namespace=0">internal link</a> led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.</small></td>
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ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<li><div class='mw-search-result-heading'><a href="/wiki/Pen_Singam" title="Pen Singam">Pen Singam</a> </div> <div class='searchresult'>Deva | cinematography Vijay <span class='searchmatch'>Ragav</span> | editing | distributor | released June 3, 2010 | runtime | country | language Tamil | budget | gross <b>...</b> </div>
<div class='mw-search-result-data'>2 KB (297 words) - 04:08, 10 April 2012</div></li>
<li><div class='mw-search-result-heading'><a href="/wiki/Royal_family_of_Manipur" title="Royal family of Manipur">Royal family of Manipur</a> </div> <div class='searchresult'>Members of the House of Nara Singh : King <span class='searchmatch'>Ragav</span> Singh, Son of Yadu Singh. King Nara Singh ( r.1844-1850) also known as Chingthanglen Pamheiba <b>...</b> </div>
<div class='mw-search-result-data'>12 KB (1,883 words) - 09:03, 19 March 2012</div></li>
<li><div class='mw-search-result-heading'><a href="/wiki/Hanswar" title="Hanswar">Hanswar</a> </div> <div class='searchresult'>List of schools and colleges : Rangey <span class='searchmatch'>Ragav</span> P S Hanswar. Sports: Cricket and volleyball are the most popular sports in Hanswar There are several <b>...</b> </div>
<div class='mw-search-result-data'>12 KB (1,911 words) - 23:35, 10 April 2012</div></li>
<li><div class='mw-search-result-heading'><a href="/wiki/Raghav_Sachar" title="Raghav Sachar">Raghav Sachar</a> </div> <div class='searchresult'>com/view/music-review-one-two-three-raghav-sachar "<span class='searchmatch'>Ragav</span> new movie One Two Three" "http://www. raghavsachar. com/ "Home page" NAME Sachar, <b>...</b> </div>
<div class='mw-search-result-data'>4 KB (462 words) - 08:59, 20 May 2012</div></li>
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ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto"><i>Ramayana</i></span></h1>
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<a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Rama</a> (right) seated on the shoulders of <a href="/wiki/Hanuman" title="Hanuman">Hanuman</a>, battles the demon-king Ravana.</div>
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<td class="" style="padding-top: 0.4em; line-height: 1.2em; background:#FFC569;padding-top:0.5em;">Part of <a href="/wiki/Category:Hindu_texts" title="Category:Hindu texts">a series</a> on</td>
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<td class="" style="padding-bottom: 0.2em; padding-bottom:1.0em;;"><a href="/wiki/Rigveda" title="Rigveda">Rigveda</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Samaveda" title="Samaveda">Samaveda</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Yajurveda" title="Yajurveda">Yajurveda</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Atharvaveda" title="Atharvaveda">Atharvaveda</a>
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<a href="/wiki/Aranyaka" title="Aranyaka">Aranyaka</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Upanishads" title="Upanishads">Upanishads</a></div>
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<a href="/wiki/Vy%C4%81kara%E1%B9%87a" title="Vyākaraṇa">Vyakarana</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Nirukta" title="Nirukta">Nirukta</a><br />
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<th class="" style="padding-top: 0.2em; background:#FFC569;;"><a href="/wiki/Upanishads" title="Upanishads">Upanishads</a></th>
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<td class="" style="padding-bottom: 0.2em; padding-bottom:1.0em;;"><i>Rig vedic</i><br />
<a href="/wiki/Aitareya_Upanishad" title="Aitareya Upanishad">Aitareya</a>
<div style="padding-top:0.3em;"><i>Yajur vedic</i><br />
<a href="/wiki/Brihadaranyaka_Upanishad" title="Brihadaranyaka Upanishad">Brihadaranyaka</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Isha_Upanishad" title="Isha Upanishad">Isha</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Taittiriya_Upanishad" title="Taittiriya Upanishad">Taittiriya</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Katha_Upanishad" title="Katha Upanishad">Katha</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Shvetashvatara_Upanishad" title="Shvetashvatara Upanishad">Shvetashvatara</a></div>
<div style="padding-top:0.3em;"><i>Sama vedic</i><br />
<a href="/wiki/Chandogya_Upanishad" title="Chandogya Upanishad" class="mw-redirect">Chandogya</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Kena_Upanishad" title="Kena Upanishad">Kena</a></div>
<div style="padding-top:0.3em;"><i>Atharva vedic</i><br />
<a href="/wiki/Mundaka_Upanishad" title="Mundaka Upanishad">Mundaka</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Mandukya_Upanishad" title="Mandukya Upanishad">Mandukya</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Prashna_Upanishad" title="Prashna Upanishad">Prashna</a></div>
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<td class="" style="padding-bottom: 0.2em; padding-bottom:1.0em;;"><i>Brahma puranas</i><br />
<a href="/wiki/Brahma_Purana" title="Brahma Purana">Brahma</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Brahm%C4%81nda_Purana" title="Brahmānda Purana" class="mw-redirect">Brahmānda</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Brahma_Vaivarta_Purana" title="Brahma Vaivarta Purana">Brahmavaivarta</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/M%C4%81rkandeya_Purana" title="Mārkandeya Purana" class="mw-redirect">Markandeya</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Bhavishya_Purana" title="Bhavishya Purana">Bhavishya</a>
<div style="padding-top:0.3em;"><i>Vaishnava puranas</i><br />
<a href="/wiki/Vishnu_Purana" title="Vishnu Purana">Vishnu</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Bhagavata_Purana" title="Bhagavata Purana">Bhagavata</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/N%C4%81radeya_Purana" title="Nāradeya Purana" class="mw-redirect">Naradeya</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Garuda_Purana" title="Garuda Purana">Garuda</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Padma_Purana" title="Padma Purana">Padma</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Agni_Purana" title="Agni Purana">Agni</a></div>
<div style="padding-top:0.3em;"><i>Shaiva puranas</i><br />
<a href="/wiki/Shiva_Purana" title="Shiva Purana">Shiva</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Linga_Purana" title="Linga Purana">Linga</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Skanda_Purana" title="Skanda Purana">Skanda</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Vayu_Purana" title="Vayu Purana">Vayu</a></div>
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<p><strong class="selflink">Ramayana</strong><br /></p>
<a href="/wiki/Mahabharata" title="Mahabharata">Mahabharata</a> (<a href="/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita" title="Bhagavad Gita">Bhagavad Gita</a>)</td>
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<a href="/wiki/Artha_Shastra" title="Artha Shastra" class="mw-redirect">Artha Shastra</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/%C4%80gama_(Hinduism)" title="Āgama (Hinduism)">Agama</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Tantras" title="Tantras">Tantra</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/S%C5%ABtra" title="Sūtra">Sūtra</a>&#160;<span style="font-weight:bold;">·</span> <a href="/wiki/Stotras" title="Stotras" class="mw-redirect">Stotra</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Dharma%C5%9B%C4%81stra" title="Dharmaśāstra">Dharmashastra</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Divya_Prabandha" title="Divya Prabandha">Divya Prabandha</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Tevaram" title="Tevaram">Tevaram</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Ramcharitmanas" title="Ramcharitmanas">Ramcharitmanas</a><br />
<a href="/wiki/Yoga_Vasistha" title="Yoga Vasistha">Yoga Vasistha</a></td>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Lakshamana_cuts_Surpanaka%27s_nose.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b8/Lakshamana_cuts_Surpanaka%27s_nose.jpg/220px-Lakshamana_cuts_Surpanaka%27s_nose.jpg" width="220" height="312" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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Ramayana Scene, Gupta Art, Indian National Museum, New Delhi.</div>
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<p>The <i><b>Ramayana</b></i> (<a href="/wiki/Sanskrit" title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit</a>:&#160;<span lang="sa" xml:lang="sa">रामायण</span>, <i><span class="Unicode">Rāmāyaṇa</span></i>,&#160;<small><a href="/wiki/Help:IPA" title="Help:IPA" class="mw-redirect">IPA</a>:</small> <span title="Pronunciation in IPA" class="IPA">[rɑːˈmɑːjəɳə]</span>&#160;<sup><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Naming_conventions_(Indic)" title="Wikipedia:Naming conventions (Indic)"><span class="indic_icon" style="color: #00e; font: bold 80% sans-serif; text-decoration: none; padding: 0 .1em;">?</span></a></sup>) is an ancient <a href="/wiki/Sanskrit" title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit</a> <a href="/wiki/Indian_epic_poetry" title="Indian epic poetry">epic</a>. It is ascribed to the <a href="/wiki/Hindu" title="Hindu">Hindu</a> sage <a href="/wiki/Valmiki" title="Valmiki">Valmiki</a> and forms an important part of the Hindu canon (<i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none"><a href="/wiki/Sm%E1%B9%9Bti" title="Smṛti" class="mw-redirect">smṛti</a></span></i>), considered to be <i>itihāsa</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-encindlit_0-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-encindlit-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the <i><a href="/wiki/Mahabharata" title="Mahabharata">Mahabharata</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king.The name <i>Ramayana</i> is a <a href="/wiki/Tatpurusha" title="Tatpurusha" class="mw-redirect">tatpurusha</a> compound of <i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">Rāma</span></i> and <i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">ayana</span></i> ("going, advancing"), translating to "<i><a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Rama</a>'s Journey</i>". The Ramayana consists of 24,000 verses in seven books (<i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">kāṇḍas</span></i>) and 500 <a href="/wiki/Canto" title="Canto">cantos</a> (<i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none">sargas</span></i>),<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> and tells the story of Rama (an <a href="/wiki/Avatar" title="Avatar">avatar</a> of the Hindu preserver-God <a href="/wiki/Vishnu" title="Vishnu">Vishnu</a>), whose wife <a href="/wiki/Sita" title="Sita">Sita</a> is abducted by the <a href="/wiki/Rakshasa" title="Rakshasa">demon</a> king of <a href="/wiki/Lanka" title="Lanka">Lanka</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravana</a>. Thematically, the <i>Ramayana</i> explores human values and the concept of <a href="/wiki/Dharma" title="Dharma">dharma</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Brockington_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Brockington-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Verses in the <i>Ramayana</i> are written in a 32-syllable meter called <i><span title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" class="Unicode" style="white-space:normal; text-decoration: none"><a href="/wiki/Anustubh" title="Anustubh" class="mw-redirect">anustubh</a></span></i>. The <i>Ramayana</i> was an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Indian life and culture. Like the <i><a href="/wiki/Mah%C4%81bh%C4%81rata" title="Mahābhārata" class="mw-redirect">Mahābhārata</a></i>, the <i>Ramayana</i> is not just a story: it presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages(Vedas) in narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and devotional elements. The characters <a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Rama</a>, <a href="/wiki/Sita" title="Sita">Sita</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lakshmana" title="Lakshmana">Lakshmana</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bharata_(Ramayana)" title="Bharata (Ramayana)">Bharata</a>, <a href="/wiki/Hanuman" title="Hanuman">Hanuman</a> and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of <a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a> and <a href="/wiki/Nepal" title="Nepal">Nepal</a>.</p>
<p>There are <a href="/wiki/Versions_of_Ramayana" title="Versions of Ramayana">other versions of the <i>Ramayana</i></a>, notably <a href="/wiki/Ramavataram" title="Ramavataram">Ramavataram</a> in <a href="/wiki/Tamil_language" title="Tamil language">Tamil</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Buddhist" title="Buddhist" class="mw-redirect">Buddhist</a> (Dasaratha Jataka No. 461) and <a href="/wiki/Jain" title="Jain" class="mw-redirect">Jain</a> in India, and also <a href="/wiki/Cambodia" title="Cambodia">Cambodian</a>, <a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesian</a>, <a href="/wiki/Philippine" title="Philippine" class="mw-redirect">Philippine</a>, <a href="/wiki/Thailand" title="Thailand">Thai</a>, <a href="/wiki/Laos" title="Laos">Lao</a>, <a href="/wiki/Burma" title="Burma">Burmese</a> and <a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malay</a> versions of the tale.</p>
<table id="toc" class="toc">
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<div id="toctitle">
<h2>Contents</h2>
</div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Textuality"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Textuality</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Period"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Period</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Characters"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Characters</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#Synopsis"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Synopsis</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Bala_Kanda"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Bala Kanda</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Ayodhya_Kanda"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Ayodhya Kanda</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Aranya_Kanda"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Aranya Kanda</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Kishkindha_Kanda"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Kishkindha Kanda</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Sundara_Kanda"><span class="tocnumber">3.5</span> <span class="toctext">Sundara Kanda</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Lanka_Kanda"><span class="tocnumber">3.6</span> <span class="toctext">Lanka Kanda</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Uttara_Kanda"><span class="tocnumber">3.7</span> <span class="toctext">Uttara Kanda</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a href="#Influence_on_culture_and_art"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Influence on culture and art</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#Variant_versions"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Variant versions</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#India"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">India</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Buddhist_version"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Buddhist version</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Jain_version"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Jain version</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#In_Nepal"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">In Nepal</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#Southeast_Asian_versions"><span class="tocnumber">5.5</span> <span class="toctext">Southeast Asian versions</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a href="#Theological_significance"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Theological significance</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-21"><a href="#Footnotes"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Footnotes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-22"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-23"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-24"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-25"><a href="#Translations_.28English.29"><span class="tocnumber">11.1</span> <span class="toctext">Translations (English)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#Research_articles"><span class="tocnumber">11.2</span> <span class="toctext">Research articles</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#Other"><span class="tocnumber">11.3</span> <span class="toctext">Other</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
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</table>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ramayana&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Textuality">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Textuality">Textuality</span></h2>
<p>Traditionally, the <i>Ramayana</i> is ascribed to <a href="/wiki/Valmiki" title="Valmiki">Valmiki</a>, regarded as India's first poet.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> The Indian tradition is unanimous in its agreement that the poem is the work of a single poet, the sage Valmiki, a contemporary of Rama and a peripheral actor in the drama.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> The story's original version in Sanskrit is known as <i>Valmiki Ramayana</i>, dating to approximately the 5th to 4th century B.C.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-chaurasia_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-chaurasia-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup> While it is often viewed as a primarily devotional text, the <a href="/wiki/Vaishnavism" title="Vaishnavism">Vaishnava</a> elements appear to be later accretions possibly dating to the 2nd century BC or later.<sup id="cite_ref-chaurasia_7-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-chaurasia-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup> The main body of the narrative lacks statements of Rama's divinity, and identifications of Rama with Vishnu are rare and subdued even in the later parts of the text.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>According to Indian tradition, and according to the <i>Ramayana</i> itself, the <i>Ramayana</i> belongs to the genre of <i>itihāsa</i>, like the <a href="/wiki/Mahabharata" title="Mahabharata">Mahabharata</a>. The definition of <i>itihāsa</i> has varied over time, with one definition being that <i>itihāsa</i> is a narrative of past events (<i>purāvṛtta</i>) which includes teachings on <a href="/wiki/Puru%E1%B9%A3%C4%81rtha" title="Puruṣārtha">the goals of human life</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-encindlit_0-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-encindlit-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> According to Hindu tradition, the Ramayana takes place during a period of time known as <a href="/wiki/Treta_Yuga" title="Treta Yuga">Treta Yuga</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In its extant form, Valmiki's <i>Ramayana</i> is an epic poem of some 50,000 lines. The text survives in several thousand partial and complete manuscripts, the oldest of which appears to date from the 11th century A.D.<sup id="cite_ref-Goldman_4-6_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Goldman_4-6-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> The text has several regional renderings,<sup id="cite_ref-sundararajan-106_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-sundararajan-106-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Recension" title="Recension">recensions</a> and subrecensions. Textual scholar Robert P. Goldman differentiates two major regional recensions: the northern (N) and the southern (S).<sup id="cite_ref-Goldman_4-6_10-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Goldman_4-6-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> Scholar <a href="/wiki/Romesh_Chunder_Dutt" title="Romesh Chunder Dutt">Romesh Chunder Dutt</a> writes that "the Ramayana, like the Mahabharata, is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind."<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>There has been discussion as to whether the first and the last chapters of Valmiki's <i>Ramayana</i> were composed by the original author. Some still believe they are integral parts of the book in spite of some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two chapters and the rest of the book.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Famous retellings include the <i>Ramayanam</i> of <a href="/wiki/Kambar_(poet)" title="Kambar (poet)">Kamban</a> in Tamil (ca. 11th–12th century), the <i><a href="/wiki/Saptakanda_Ramayana" title="Saptakanda Ramayana">Saptakanda Ramayana</a></i> of <a href="/wiki/Madhava_Kandali" title="Madhava Kandali">Madhava Kandali</a> in Assamese (ca. 14th century), <i>Shri Rama Panchali</i> or <i><a href="/wiki/Krittivasi_Ramayan" title="Krittivasi Ramayan">Krittivasi Ramayan</a></i> by <a href="/wiki/Krittibas_Ojha" title="Krittibas Ojha">Krittibas Ojha</a> in <a href="/wiki/Bengali_language" title="Bengali language">Bengali</a> (ca. 15th Century), and <i><a href="/wiki/Ramacharitamanas" title="Ramacharitamanas" class="mw-redirect">Ramacharitamanas</a></i> by <a href="/wiki/Tulasidas" title="Tulasidas" class="mw-redirect">Tulasidas</a> in Awadhi which is an eastern form of Hindi (c. 16th century).<sup id="cite_ref-sundararajan-106_11-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-sundararajan-106-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ramayana&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Period">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Period">Period</span></h3>
<p>Some cultural evidence (the presence of <a href="/wiki/Sati_(practice)" title="Sati (practice)">sati</a> in the Mahabharata but not in the main body of the <i>Ramayana</i>) suggests that the <i>Ramayana</i> predates the Mahabharata.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup> However, the general cultural background of the <i>Ramayana</i> is one of the post-urbanization period of the eastern part of North India, while the Mahabharata reflects the Kuru areas west of this, from the Rigvedic to the late Vedic period.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>By tradition, the text belongs to the <a href="/wiki/Treta_Yuga" title="Treta Yuga">Treta Yuga</a>, second of the four eons (yuga) of <a href="/wiki/Yuga" title="Yuga">Hindu chronology</a>. Rama is said to have been born in the Treta Yuga to King <a href="/wiki/Da%C5%9Baratha" title="Daśaratha" class="mw-redirect">Daśaratha</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Ikshvaku_dynasty" title="Ikshvaku dynasty">Ikshvaku</a> vamsa (clan).<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The names of the characters (Rama, Sita, Dasharatha, Janaka, Vasishta, Vishwamitra) are all known in late Vedic literature, older than the Valmiki Ramayana.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup> However, nowhere in the surviving Vedic poetry is there a story similar to the Ramayana of Valmiki.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup> According to the modern academic view, <a href="/wiki/Vishnu" title="Vishnu">Vishnu</a>, who according to <i>Bala Kanda</i> was incarnated as Rama, first came into prominence with the epics themselves and further during the 'Puranic' period of the later 1st millennium CE. There is also a version of Ramayana, known as Ramopakhyana, found in the epic <i><a href="/wiki/Mahabharata" title="Mahabharata">Mahabharata</a></i>. This version is depicted as a narration to <a href="/wiki/Yudhishtira" title="Yudhishtira" class="mw-redirect">Yudhishtira</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>There is general consensus that books two to six form the oldest portion of the epic while the first book <i>Bala Kanda</i> and the last the <i>Uttara Kanda</i> are later additions.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup> The author or authors of <i>Bala Kanda</i> and <i>Ayodhya Kanda</i> appear to be familiar with the eastern <a href="/wiki/Gangetic_basin" title="Gangetic basin" class="mw-redirect">Gangetic basin</a> region of northern India and the <a href="/wiki/Kosala" title="Kosala">Kosala</a> and <a href="/wiki/Magadha" title="Magadha">Magadha</a> region during the period of the sixteen <i><a href="/wiki/Janapadas" title="Janapadas">janapadas</a></i> as the geographical and geopolitical data is in keeping with what is known about the region. However, when the story moves to the <i>Aranya Kanda</i> and beyond, it seems to turn abruptly into fantasy with its demon-slaying hero and fantastic creatures. The geography of central and South India is increasingly vaguely described. The knowledge of the location of the island of <a href="/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a> also lacks detail.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup> Basing his assumption on these features, the historian H.D. Sankalia has proposed a date of the 4th century BC for the composition of the text.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup> A. L. Basham, however, is of the opinion that Rama may have been a minor chief who lived in the 8th or the 7th century BC.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Ramayana&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Characters">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Characters">Characters</span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Hanuman_before_Rama.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/Hanuman_before_Rama.jpg/220px-Hanuman_before_Rama.jpg" width="220" height="148" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Hanuman_before_Rama.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.20wmf4/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
<a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Rama</a> seated with <a href="/wiki/Sita" title="Sita">Sita</a>, fanned by <a href="/wiki/Lakshmana" title="Lakshmana">Lakshmana</a>, while <a href="/wiki/Hanuman" title="Hanuman">Hanuman</a> pays his respects.</div>
</div>
</div>
<ul>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Rama" title="Rama">Rama</a></b> is one of the protagonists of the tale. Portrayed as the seventh avatar of the God <a href="/wiki/Vishnu" title="Vishnu">Vishnu</a>, he is the eldest and favorite son of the King of Ayodhya, <a href="/wiki/Dasharatha" title="Dasharatha">Dasharatha</a>, and his Queen <a href="/wiki/Kausalya" title="Kausalya">Kausalya</a>. He is portrayed as the epitome of virtue. Dasharatha is forced by <a href="/wiki/Kaikeyi" title="Kaikeyi">Kaikeyi</a>, one of his wives, to command Rama to relinquish his right to the throne for fourteen years and go into exile.</li>
</ul>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Rama_and_monkey_chiefs.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/da/Rama_and_monkey_chiefs.jpg/220px-Rama_and_monkey_chiefs.jpg" width="220" height="118" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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Rama and monkey chiefs</div>
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<ul>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Sita" title="Sita">Sita</a></b> is one of the protagonists and the beloved wife of Rama and the daughter of king Janaka. Rama went to Janakpurdham, current city of Janakpur, Nepal, and got a chance to marry her by lifting a heavy Bow in a competition organized by King Janaka. The competition was to find the most suitable husband for Sita and many princes from different states competed to win her. Sita is the avatar of Goddess <a href="/wiki/Lakshmi" title="Lakshmi">Lakshmi</a>, the consort of Vishnu. Sita is portrayed as the epitome of female purity and virtue. She follows her husband into exile and is abducted by Ravana. She is imprisoned on the island of <a href="/wiki/Lanka" title="Lanka">Lanka</a> until Rama rescues her by defeating the demon king Ravana. Later, she gives birth to <a href="/wiki/Lava_(Ramayana)" title="Lava (Ramayana)">Lava</a> and <a href="/wiki/Kusha_(Ramayana)" title="Kusha (Ramayana)">Kusha</a>, the heirs of Rama.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Hanuman" title="Hanuman">Hanuman</a></b> is the <a href="/wiki/Tritagonist" title="Tritagonist">tritagonist</a> and a <a href="/wiki/Vanara" title="Vanara">vanara</a> belonging to the kingdom of Kishkindha. He is portrayed as the eleventh avatar of God <a href="/wiki/Shiva" title="Shiva">Shiva</a> (He is also called Rudra) and an ideal <i><a href="/wiki/Bhakta" title="Bhakta" class="mw-redirect">bhakta</a></i> of Rama. He is born as the son of Kesari, a vanara king, and the Goddess Anjana. He plays an important part in locating Sita and in the ensuing battle.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Lakshmana" title="Lakshmana">Lakshmana</a></b>, the younger brother of Rama, who chose to go into exile with him. He is the son of King Dasaratha and Queen Sumitra, and twin of Shatrughna. Lakshmana is portrayed as an avatar of the <a href="/wiki/Shesha" title="Shesha">Shesha</a>, the <a href="/wiki/N%C4%81ga" title="Nāga">nāga</a> associated with the God Vishnu. He spends his time protecting Sita and Rama during which he fought the demoness <a href="/wiki/Surpanakha" title="Surpanakha">Surpanakha</a>. He is forced to leave Sita, who was deceived by the demon <a href="/wiki/Maricha" title="Maricha">Maricha</a> into believing that Rama was in trouble. Sita is abducted by Ravana upon him leaving her. He was married to Sita's younger sister <a href="/wiki/Urmila_(Ramayana_Character)" title="Urmila (Ramayana Character)" class="mw-redirect">Urmila</a>.He is believed to live until our modern world.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Ravana" title="Ravana">Ravana</a></b>, a <a href="/wiki/Rakshasa" title="Rakshasa">rakshasa</a>, is the king of Lanka. After performing severe penance for ten thousand years he received a boon from the creator-God <a href="/wiki/Brahma" title="Brahma">Brahma</a>: he could henceforth not be killed by Gods, demons, or spirits. He is portrayed as a powerful demon king who disturbs the penances of <i>Rishis</i>. Vishnu incarnates as the human Rama to defeat him, thus circumventing the boon given by Brahma.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Jatayu" title="Jatayu">Jatayu</a></b>, the son of <a href="/wiki/Aru%E1%B9%87a" title="Aruṇa">Aruṇa</a> and nephew of <a href="/wiki/Garuda" title="Garuda">Garuda</a>. A demi-god who has the form of a <a href="/wiki/Eagle" title="Eagle">eagle</a> that tries to rescue Sita from Ravana. Jatayu fought valiantly with Ravana, but as Jatayu was very old, Ravana soon got the better of him. As Rama and Lakshmana chanced upon the stricken and dying Jatayu in their search for Sita, he informs them the direction in which Ravana had gone.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Dasharatha" title="Dasharatha">Dasharatha</a></b> is the king of <a href="/wiki/Ayodhya" title="Ayodhya">Ayodhya</a> and the father of Rama. He has three queens, <a href="/wiki/Kausalya" title="Kausalya">Kausalya</a>, <a href="/wiki/Kaikeyi" title="Kaikeyi">Kaikeyi</a> and <a href="/wiki/Sumitra" title="Sumitra">Sumitra</a>, and three other sons: <a href="/wiki/Bharata_(Ramayana)" title="Bharata (Ramayana)">Bharata</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lakshmana" title="Lakshmana">Lakshmana</a> and <a href="/wiki/Shatrughna" title="Shatrughna">Shatrughna</a>. Kaikeyi, Dasharatha's favourite queen, forces him to make his son Bharata crown prince and send Rama into exile. Dasharatha dies heartbroken after Rama goes into exile.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Bharata_(Ramayana)" title="Bharata (Ramayana)">Bharata</a></b> is the son of Dasharatha and Queen Kaikeyi. When he learns that his mother Kaikeyi had fo
ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Sachin</span></h1>
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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><p>The name Sachin is derived, via <a href="/wiki/Indo-Aryan_languages" title="Indo-Aryan languages">Indic</a> languages like <a href="/wiki/Bengali_language" title="Bengali language">Bengali</a> and <a href="/wiki/Marathi_language" title="Marathi language">Marathi</a>, from the <a href="/wiki/Sanskrit" title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit</a> name Shachindra. Shachindra is a name given to <a href="/wiki/Hindu" title="Hindu">Hindu</a> mythological god <a href="/wiki/Indra" title="Indra">Indra</a> which means Shachi's Indra. <a href="/wiki/Shachi" title="Shachi" class="mw-redirect">Shachi</a> was one of the wives of Indra. It is also a name of Hindu god <a href="/wiki/Shiva" title="Shiva">Shiva</a>. The literal meaning can be roughly translated into English as "the essence".</p>
<p>It may also refer to:</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Sachin&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: People">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="People">People</span></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sachin_Tendulkar" title="Sachin Tendulkar">Sachin Tendulkar</a>, an Indian cricketer</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sachin_(actor)" title="Sachin (actor)">Sachin (actor)</a>, a Bollywood actor</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sachin_Pilot" title="Sachin Pilot">Sachin Pilot</a>, an Indian politician</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sachin_Dev_Burman" title="Sachin Dev Burman">Sachin Dev Burman</a>, a Bollywood music director</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Sachin&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Place">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Place">Place</span></h2>
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<li><a href="/wiki/Sachin,_Pas-de-Calais" title="Sachin, Pas-de-Calais">Sachin, Pas-de-Calais</a>, a town in northern France</li>
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<p><a href="/w/index.php?title=IN_:_Sachin_Gaikwad&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="IN : Sachin Gaikwad (page does not exist)">IN : Sachin Gaikwad</a>&#160;: Web Developer the great warrior of India.</p>


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ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Hero</span></h1>
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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="dablink">For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Hero_(disambiguation)" title="Hero (disambiguation)">Hero (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<div class="dablink">"Heroism" and "Heroic" redirect here. For the film, see <a href="/wiki/Heroism_(film)" title="Heroism (film)" class="mw-redirect">Heroism (film)</a>. For the racehorse, see <a href="/wiki/Heroic_(horse)" title="Heroic (horse)">Heroic (horse)</a>.</div>
<div class="dablink">"Heroine" redirects here. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Heroine_(disambiguation)" title="Heroine (disambiguation)">Heroine (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<div class="dablink">"Good guy" redirects here. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/The_Good_Guys_(disambiguation)" title="The Good Guys (disambiguation)" class="mw-redirect">The Good Guys (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<div class="dablink">Not to be confused with <a href="/wiki/Heroin" title="Heroin">heroin</a>.</div>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Risorgimento,_Giuseppe_Garibaldi.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Risorgimento%2C_Giuseppe_Garibaldi.jpg/220px-Risorgimento%2C_Giuseppe_Garibaldi.jpg" width="220" height="274" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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<a href="/wiki/Italy" title="Italy">Italian</a> national hero <a href="/wiki/Giuseppe_Garibaldi" title="Giuseppe Garibaldi">Giuseppe Garibaldi</a> has been dubbed the "Hero of the Two Worlds" in tribute to his military expeditions in both <a href="/wiki/South_America" title="South America">South America</a> and <a href="/wiki/Europe" title="Europe">Europe</a></div>
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<a href="/wiki/Netherlands" title="Netherlands">Dutch</a> folk hero <a href="/wiki/Dorus_Rijkers" title="Dorus Rijkers">Dorus Rijkers</a> saved the lives of 500 people</div>
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<p>A <b>hero</b> (<b>heroine</b> is usually used for females) (<a href="/wiki/Ancient_Greek" title="Ancient Greek">Ancient Greek</a>: <span lang="grc" xml:lang="grc">ἥρως, hḗrōs</span>), in <a href="/wiki/Greek_mythology" title="Greek mythology">Greek mythology</a> and <a href="/wiki/Folklore" title="Folklore">folklore</a>, was originally a <a href="/wiki/Demigod" title="Demigod">demigod</a>, their <a href="/wiki/Greek_hero_cult" title="Greek hero cult">cult</a> being one of the most distinctive features of <a href="/wiki/Religion_in_ancient_Greece" title="Religion in ancient Greece">ancient Greek religion</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> Later, <i>hero</i> (male) and <i>heroine</i> (female) came to refer to <a href="/wiki/Character_(arts)" title="Character (arts)">characters</a> who, in the face of danger and adversity or from a position of weakness, display <a href="/wiki/Courage" title="Courage">courage</a> and the will for <a href="/wiki/Self_sacrifice" title="Self sacrifice" class="mw-redirect">self sacrifice</a>—that is, heroism—for some <a href="/wiki/Value_theory" title="Value theory">greater good</a> of all humanity. This definition originally referred to <a href="/wiki/Warrior" title="Warrior">martial</a> courage or excellence but extended to more general <a href="/wiki/Morality" title="Morality">moral</a> excellence.</p>
<p>Stories of heroism may serve as <a href="/wiki/Moral_example" title="Moral example">moral examples</a>. In <a href="/wiki/Classical_antiquity" title="Classical antiquity">classical antiquity</a>, hero cults that venerated deified heroes such as <a href="/wiki/Heracles" title="Heracles">Heracles</a>, <a href="/wiki/Perseus" title="Perseus">Perseus</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Achilles" title="Achilles">Achilles</a> played an important role in Ancient Greek religion. Politicians, ancient and modern, have employed hero worship for their own <a href="/wiki/Apotheosis" title="Apotheosis">apotheosis</a> (i.e., <a href="/wiki/Cult_of_personality" title="Cult of personality">cult of personality</a>).</p>
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<h2>Contents</h2>
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<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Etymology"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Etymology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Classical_hero_cults"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Classical hero cults</span></a>
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<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Analysis"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Analysis</span></a></li>
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<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#The_validity_of_the_hero_in_historical_studies"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">The validity of the hero in historical studies</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#Heroic_myth"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Heroic myth</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#Folk_and_fairy_tales"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Folk and fairy tales</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-7"><a href="#The_modern_fictional_hero"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">The modern fictional hero</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Hero_as_self"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Hero as self</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#Psychology_of_heroism"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Psychology of heroism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
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<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Etymology">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span></h2>
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<a href="/wiki/Sir_Galahad" title="Sir Galahad" class="mw-redirect">Sir Galahad</a>, a hero of <a href="/wiki/Arthurian_legend" title="Arthurian legend" class="mw-redirect">Arthurian legend</a>, detail of a painting by <a href="/wiki/George_Frederic_Watts" title="George Frederic Watts">George Frederic Watts</a></div>
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<p>Coined in English 1387, the word <i>hero</i> comes from the <a href="/wiki/Greek_language" title="Greek language">Greek</a> "ἥρως" (<i>heroes</i>), "hero, warrior",<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> literally "protector" or "defender"<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> the postulated original forms of these words being *<span lang="grc" xml:lang="grc">ἥρϝως</span>, <i>hērwōs</i>, and *<span lang="grc" xml:lang="grc">ἭρFα</span>, <i>Hērwā</i>, respectively. It is also thought<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from May 2012">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> to be a cognate of the <a href="/wiki/Latin" title="Latin">Latin</a> verb <i>servo</i> (original meaning: to preserve whole) and of the <a href="/wiki/Avestan_language" title="Avestan language">Avestan</a> verb <i>haurvaiti</i> (to keep vigil over), although the original <a href="/wiki/Proto-Indo-European_root" title="Proto-Indo-European root">Proto-Indoeuropean root</a> is unclear.</p>
<p>According to the <i>American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language,</i> the Indo-European root is <i>*ser</i> meaning "to protect". According to Eric Partridge in <i>Origins,</i> the Greek word <i>Hērōs</i> "is akin to" the Latin <i>seruāre,</i> meaning <i>to safeguard</i>. Partridge concludes, "The basic sense of both Hera and hero would therefore be 'protector'."</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Classical hero cults">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Classical_hero_cults">Classical hero cults</span></h2>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Greek_hero_cult" title="Greek hero cult">Greek hero cult</a></div>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section <b>needs additional <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources#Inline_citations" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">citations</a> for <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">verification</a></b>. Please help <a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit">improve this article</a> by adding citations to <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Identifying_reliable_sources" title="Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources">reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be <a href="/wiki/Template:Citation_needed" title="Template:Citation needed">challenged</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>. <small><i>(July 2007)</i></small></td>
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<p>When <a href="/wiki/Cleisthenes" title="Cleisthenes">Cleisthenes</a> divided the <a href="/wiki/History_of_Athens" title="History of Athens">ancient Athenians</a> into new <i><a href="/wiki/Deme" title="Deme">demes</a></i> for voting, he consulted the <a href="/wiki/Delphi#Oracle" title="Delphi">Oracle of Delphi</a> about what heroes he should name each division after. According to <a href="/wiki/Herodotus" title="Herodotus">Herodotus</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Sparta" title="Sparta">Spartans</a> attributed their conquest of <a href="/wiki/Arcadia" title="Arcadia">Arcadia</a> to their theft of the bones of <a href="/wiki/Orestes_(mythology)" title="Orestes (mythology)" class="mw-redirect">Orestes</a> from the Arcadian town of <a href="/wiki/Tegea" title="Tegea">Tegea</a>.</p>
<p>Heroes in myth often had close but conflicted relationships with the gods. Thus Heracles's name means "the glory of Hera", even though he was tormented all his life by Hera, the Queen of the Gods. Perhaps the most striking example is the Athenian king <a href="/wiki/Erechtheus" title="Erechtheus">Erechtheus</a>, whom <a href="/wiki/Poseidon" title="Poseidon">Poseidon</a> killed for choosing <a href="/wiki/Athena" title="Athena">Athena</a> over him as the city's patron god. When the Athenians worshiped Erechtheus on the <a href="/wiki/Acropolis_of_Athens" title="Acropolis of Athens">Acropolis</a>, they invoked him as <i>Poseidon Erechtheus</i>.</p>
<p>In the <a href="/wiki/Hellenistic_civilization" title="Hellenistic civilization">Hellenistic</a> Greek East, dynastic leaders such as the <a href="/wiki/Ptolemaic_dynasty" title="Ptolemaic dynasty">Ptolemies</a> or <a href="/wiki/Seleucid_Empire" title="Seleucid Empire">Seleucids</a> were also proclaimed heroes.<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from September 2008">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Analysis">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Analysis">Analysis</span></h3>
<p>The classic hero often came with what <a href="/wiki/FitzRoy_Somerset,_4th_Baron_Raglan" title="FitzRoy Somerset, 4th Baron Raglan">Lord Raglan</a> (a descendant of the <a href="/wiki/FitzRoy_Somerset,_1st_Baron_Raglan" title="FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan">FitzRoy Somerset, Lord Raglan</a>) termed a "potted biography" made up of some two dozen common traditions that ignored the line between historical fact and mythology.<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from September 2008">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> For example, the circumstances of the hero's conception are unusual; an attempt is made by a powerful male at his birth to kill him; he is spirited away; reared by foster-parents in a far country. Routinely the hero meets a mysterious death, often at the top of a hill; his body is not buried; he leaves no successors; he has one or more holy <a href="/wiki/Sepulchre" title="Sepulchre" class="mw-redirect">sepulchres</a>.</p>
<p>The first Hero:</p>
<p>Hero (mythical priestess), in Greek mythology, priestess of Aphrodite, goddess of love, at Sestos, a town on the Hellespont (now Dardanelles). Hero was loved by Leander, a youth who lived at Abydos, a town on the Asian side of the channel. They could not marry because Hero was bound by a vow of chastity, and so every night Leander swam from Asia to Europe, guided by a lamp in Hero's tower. One stormy night a high wind extinguished the beacon, and Leander was drowned. His body was washed ashore beneath Hero's tower; in her grief, she threw herself into the sea.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: The validity of the hero in historical studies">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="The_validity_of_the_hero_in_historical_studies">The validity of the hero in historical studies</span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section <b>needs additional <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources#Inline_citations" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">citations</a> for <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">verification</a></b>. Please help <a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit">improve this article</a> by adding citations to <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Identifying_reliable_sources" title="Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources">reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be <a href="/wiki/Template:Citation_needed" title="Template:Citation needed">challenged</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>. <small><i>(July 2007)</i></small></td>
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<div class="rellink">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Philosophy_of_history" title="Philosophy of history">Philosophy of history</a>&#160;and&#160;<a href="/wiki/Great_man_theory" title="Great man theory" class="mw-redirect">Great man theory</a></div>
<p>The philosopher <a href="/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel" title="Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel">Hegel</a> gave a central role to the "hero", personalized by <a href="/wiki/Napoleon_I_of_France" title="Napoleon I of France" class="mw-redirect">Napoleon</a>, as the incarnation of a particular culture's <i><a href="/wiki/Volksgeist" title="Volksgeist">Volksgeist</a></i>, and thus of the general <i><a href="/wiki/Zeitgeist" title="Zeitgeist">Zeitgeist</a></i>. <a href="/wiki/Thomas_Carlyle" title="Thomas Carlyle">Thomas Carlyle</a>'s 1841 <i>On Heroes, Hero Worship and the Heroic in History</i> also accorded a key function to heroes and great men in history. Carlyle centered history on the <a href="/wiki/Biography" title="Biography">biography</a> of a few central individuals such as <a href="/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell" title="Oliver Cromwell">Oliver Cromwell</a> or <a href="/wiki/Frederick_II_of_Prussia" title="Frederick II of Prussia" class="mw-redirect">Frederick the Great</a>. His heroes were political and military figures, the founders or topplers of states. His history of great men, of geniuses good and evil, sought to organize change in the advent of greatness.</p>
<p>Explicit defenses of Carlyle's position were rare in the second part of the 20th century. Most philosophers of history contend that the motive forces in history can best be described only with a wider lens than the one he used for his portraits. For example, <a href="/wiki/Karl_Marx" title="Karl Marx">Karl Marx</a> argued that history was determined by the massive social forces at play in "<a href="/wiki/Class_struggle" title="Class struggle" class="mw-redirect">class struggles</a>", not by the individuals by whom these forces are played out. After Marx, <a href="/wiki/Herbert_Spencer" title="Herbert Spencer">Herbert Spencer</a> wrote at the end of the 19th century: "You must admit that the genesis of the great man depends on the long series of complex influences which has produced the race in which he appears, and the social state into which that race has slowly grown....Before he can remake his society, his society must make him."<sup id="cite_ref-Spencer_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Spencer-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
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The Swedish Diplomat <a href="/wiki/Raoul_Wallenberg" title="Raoul Wallenberg">Raoul Wallenberg</a> saved the lives of tens of thousands of Jews in Budapest during World War II.</div>
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<p>As <a href="/wiki/Michel_Foucault" title="Michel Foucault">Michel Foucault</a> pointed out in <a href="/wiki/Philosophy_of_history#Michel_Foucault.27s_analysis_of_historical_and_political_discourse" title="Philosophy of history">his analysis of societal communication and debate</a>, history was mainly the "science of the <a href="/wiki/Sovereignty" title="Sovereignty">sovereign</a>", until its inversion by the "historical and political popular discourse".</p>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Annales_School" title="Annales School">Annales School</a>, led by <a href="/wiki/Lucien_Febvre" title="Lucien Febvre">Lucien Febvre</a>, <a href="/wiki/Marc_Bloch" title="Marc Bloch">Marc Bloch</a> and <a href="/wiki/Fernand_Braudel" title="Fernand Braudel">Fernand Braudel</a>, would contest the exaggeration of the role of <a href="/wiki/Subject_(philosophy)" title="Subject (philosophy)">individual subjects</a> in history. Indeed, Braudel distinguished various time scales, one accorded to the life of an individual, another accorded to the life of a few human generations, and the last one to <a href="/wiki/Civilization" title="Civilization">civilizations</a>, in which <a href="/wiki/Geography" title="Geography">geography</a>, <a href="/wiki/Economics" title="Economics">economics</a> and <a href="/wiki/Demography" title="Demography">demography</a> play a role considerably more decisive than that of individual subjects. Foucault's conception of an "archeology" <i>(not to be confused with the <a href="/wiki/Anthropology" title="Anthropology">anthropological</a> discipline of <a href="/wiki/Archaeology" title="Archaeology">archaeology</a>)</i> or <a href="/wiki/Louis_Althusser" title="Louis Althusser">Louis Althusser</a>'s work were attempts at linking together these various heterogeneous layers composing history.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Please_clarify" title="Wikipedia:Please clarify"><span title="The text in the vicinity of this tag needs clarification or removal of jargon from June 2008">clarification needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>Among noticeable events in the studies of the role of the hero and <a href="/wiki/Great_men_theory" title="Great men theory" class="mw-redirect">Great man</a> in history one should mention <a href="/wiki/Sydney_Hook" title="Sydney Hook" class="mw-redirect">Sydney Hook</a>'s book <i>The Hero in History</i><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In the epoch of <a href="/wiki/Globalization" title="Globalization">globalization</a> an individual can still change the development of the country and of the whole world so this gives reasons to some scholars to suggest returning to the problem of the role of the hero in history from the viewpoint of modern historical knowledge and using up-to-date methods of historical analysis<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Within the frameworks of developing <a href="/wiki/Counterfactual_history" title="Counterfactual history">counterfactual history</a>, there are made attempts to examine some hypothetic scenarios of historical development. And the hero attracts much attention because most of those scenarios are based on the suppositions: what would have happened if this or that historical individual had or had not been alive<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Heroic myth">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Heroic_myth">Heroic myth</span></h2>
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The four heroes from the 16th century Chinese novel <i><a href="/wiki/Journey_to_the_West" title="Journey to the West">Journey to the West</a></i></div>
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<p>The concept of a story archetype of the standard "hero's <a href="/wiki/Quest" title="Quest">quest</a>" or <a href="/wiki/Monomyth" title="Monomyth">monomyth</a> pervasive across all cultures is somewhat controversial. Expounded mainly by <a href="/wiki/Joseph_Campbell" title="Joseph Campbell">Joseph Campbell</a> in <i><a href="/wiki/The_Hero_with_a_Thousand_Faces" title="The Hero with a Thousand Faces">The Hero with a Thousand Faces</a></i>, it illustrates several uniting themes of hero stories that hold similar ideas of what a hero represents, despite vastly different cultures and beliefs.<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from September 2008">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Folk and fairy tales">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Folk_and_fairy_tales">Folk and fairy tales</span></h2>
<p><a href="/wiki/Vladimir_Propp" title="Vladimir Propp">Vladimir Propp</a>, in his analysis of the Russian <a href="/wiki/Fairy_tale" title="Fairy tale">fairy tale</a>, concluded that a fairy tale had only eight <i><a href="/wiki/Dramatis_person%C3%A6" title="Dramatis personæ">dramatis personæ</a></i>, of which one was the hero,<sup id="cite_ref-Propp_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Propp-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup><sup class="reference" style="white-space:nowrap;">:p. 80</sup> and his analysis has been widely applied to non-<a href="/wiki/Slavic_mythology" title="Slavic mythology">Russian folklore</a>. The actions that fall into a such hero's sphere include:</p>
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<li>Departure on a quest</li>
<li>Reacting to the test of a <a href="/wiki/Donor_(fairy_tale)" title="Donor (fairy tale)">donor</a></li>
<li>Marrying a princess (or similar figure)</li>
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<p>He distinguished between <i>seekers</i> and <i>victim-heroes</i>. A <a href="/wiki/Villain" title="Villain">villain</a> could initiate the issue by kidnapping the hero or driving him out; these were victim-heroes. On the other hand, an antagonist could rob the hero, or kidnap someone close to him, or, without the villain's intervention, the hero could realize that he lacked something and set out to find it; these heroes are seekers. Victims may appear in tales with seeker heroes, but the tale does not follow them both.<sup id="cite_ref-Propp_7-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Propp-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup><sup class="reference" style="white-space:nowrap;">:36</sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: The modern fictional hero">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="The_modern_fictional_hero">The modern fictional hero</span></h2>
<p>Hero or heroine is sometimes used to simply describe the <a href="/wiki/Protagonist" title="Protagonist">protagonist</a> of a story, or the <a href="/wiki/Romantic_interest_(theatre)" title="Romantic interest (theatre)" class="mw-redirect">love interest</a>, a usage which can conflict with the superhuman expectations of heroism. <a href="/wiki/William_Makepeace_Thackeray" title="William Makepeace Thackeray">William Makepeace Thackeray</a> gave <i><a href="/wiki/Vanity_Fair_(novel)" title="Vanity Fair (novel)">Vanity Fair</a></i> the subtitle <i>A Novel without a Hero</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup> The larger-than-life hero is a more common feature of <a href="/wiki/Fantasy" title="Fantasy">fantasy</a> (particularly <a href="/wiki/Sword_and_sorcery" title="Sword and sorcery">sword and sorcery</a> and <a href="/wiki/High_fantasy" title="High fantasy">epic fantasy</a>) than more realist works.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In modern <a href="/wiki/Film" title="Film">movies</a>, the hero is often simply an ordinary person in extraordinary circumstances, who, despite the odds being stacked against him or her, typically prevails in the end. In some movies (especially <a href="/wiki/Action_film" title="Action film">action movies</a>), a hero may exhibit characteristics such as superhuman <a href="/wiki/Physical_strength" title="Physical strength">strength</a> and <a href="/wiki/Endurance" title="Endurance">endurance</a> that sometimes makes him nearly invincible. Often a hero in these situations has a <a href="/wiki/Foil_(literature)" title="Foil (literature)">foil</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Villain" title="Villain">villain</a>, typically a charismatic evildoer who represents, leads, or himself embodies the struggle the hero is up against. Post-modern fictional works have fomented the increased popularity of the <a href="/wiki/Antihero" title="Antihero">antihero</a>, who does not follow common conceptions of heroism.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Hero as self">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Hero_as_self">Hero as self</span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section <b>needs additional <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources#Inline_citations" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">citations</a> for <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">verification</a></b>. Please help <a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit">improve this article</a> by adding citations to <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Identifying_reliable_sources" title="Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources">reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be <a href="/wiki/Template:Citation_needed" title="Template:Citation needed">challenged</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>. <small><i>(February 2007)</i></small></td>
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<p>It has been suggested in an article by Roma Chatterji"<sup id="cite_ref-Chatterji_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Chatterji-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> that the hero or more generally protagonist is first and foremost a symbolic representation of the person who is experiencing the story while reading, listening or watching; thus the relevance of the hero to the individual relies a great deal on how much similarity there is between the two. One reason for the hero-as-self interpretation of stories and myths is the human inability to view the world from any perspective but a personal one.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Psychology of heroism">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Psychology_of_heroism">Psychology of heroism</span></h2>
<p>Social psychology has begun paying attention to heroes and heroism. A work by Zeno Franco and <a href="/wiki/Philip_Zimbardo" title="Philip Zimbardo">Philip Zimbardo</a><sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup> points out differences between heroism and altruism, and they offer evidence that observers' perceptions of unjustified risk plays a role, above and beyond risk type, in determining the ascription of heroic status.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
<table class="metadata mbox-small plainlinks" style="border:1px solid #aaa; background-color:#f9f9f9;">
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<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/30px-Commons-logo.svg.png" width="30" height="40" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text" style="">Wikimedia Commons has media related to: <i><b><a class="external text" href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Heroes">hero</a></b></i></td>
</tr>
</table>
<table class="metadata mbox-small plainlinks" style="border:1px solid #aaa; background-color:#f9f9f9;">
<tr>
<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Wikiquote-logo-en.svg/40px-Wikiquote-logo-en.svg.png" width="40" height="40" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text" style="">Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: <i><b><a class="external text" href="//en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Heroes">Heroes</a></b></i></td>
</tr>
</table>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Action_hero" title="Action hero">Action hero</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_female_action_heroes" title="List of female action heroes">List of female action heroes</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antihero" title="Antihero">Antihero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Byronic_hero" title="Byronic hero">Byronic hero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Culture_hero" title="Culture hero">Culture hero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Folk_hero" title="Folk hero">Folk hero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Germanic_hero" title="Germanic hero">Germanic hero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Randian_hero" title="Randian hero">Randian hero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reluctant_hero" title="Reluctant hero">Reluctant hero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Romantic_hero" title="Romantic hero">Romantic hero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Superhero" title="Superhero">Superhero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tragic_hero" title="Tragic hero">Tragic hero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Youxia" title="Youxia">Youxia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_genres" title="List of genres">List of genres</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hero_of_Labour" title="Hero of Labour">Hero of Labour</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Hero&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: References">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-0"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">See <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2347602">Heroes, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, 'A Greek-English Lexicon', at Perseus</a> and <a href="/wiki/Plato" title="Plato">Plato</a>, '<a href="/wiki/Cratylus" title="Cratylus">Cratylus</a>'</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dh%28%2Frws">ἥρως</a>, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, <i>A Greek-English Lexicon</i>, on Perseus Digital Library</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=hero">Hero: Online Etymology Dictionary, entry "Hero"</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Spencer-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Spencer_3-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Spencer, Herbert. <i><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&amp;d=96277756">The Study of Sociology</a></i>, Appleton, 1896, p. 34.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Hook, S. 1955[1943]. The Hero in History. A Study in Limitation and Possibility. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Leonid_Grinin" title="Leonid Grinin">Grinin, Leonid</a> 2010. The Role of an Individual in History: A Reconsideration. Social Evolution &amp; History, Vol. 9 No. 2 (pp. 95–136)<a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://www.socionauki.ru/journal/articles/129622/">[1]</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Thompson. W. The Lead Economy Sequence in World Politics (From Sung China to the United States): Selected Counterfactuals. Journal of Globalization Studies. Vol. 1, num. 1. 2010. PP. 6–28 <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://www.socionauki.ru/journal/articles/126971/">[2]</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Propp-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Propp_7-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Propp_7-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Vladimir Propp, <i>Morphology of the Folk Tale</i>, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0292783760" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0-292-78376-0</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Northrop_Frye" title="Northrop Frye">Northrop Frye</a>, <i><a href="/wiki/Anatomy_of_Criticism" title="Anatomy of Criticism">Anatomy of Criticism</a></i>, p 34, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0691012989" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0-691-01298-9</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/L._Sprague_de_Camp" title="L. Sprague de Camp">L. Sprague de Camp</a>, <i><a href="/wiki/Literary_Swordsmen_and_Sorcerers" title="Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers&qu
ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Idiot</span></h1>
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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="dablink">For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Idiot_(disambiguation)" title="Idiot (disambiguation)">Idiot (disambiguation)</a> and <a href="/wiki/The_Idiot_(disambiguation)" title="The Idiot (disambiguation)">The Idiot (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<p>An <b>idiot</b>, <b>dolt</b>, or <b>dullard</b> is a mentally deficient person, or someone who acts in a self-defeating or significantly counterproductive way. Archaically the word <a href="/wiki/Mental_retardation#Archaic_terms" title="Mental retardation">mome</a> has also been used. The similar terms <a href="/wiki/Moron_(psychology)" title="Moron (psychology)">moron</a>, <a href="/wiki/Imbecile" title="Imbecile">imbecile</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Cretinism" title="Cretinism">cretin</a> have all gained specialized meanings in modern times. An idiot is said to be <b>idiotic</b>, and to suffer from <b>idiocy</b>. A <a href="/wiki/Dunce" title="Dunce">dunce</a> is an idiot who is specifically incapable of learning. An idiot differs from a <a href="/wiki/Foolishness" title="Foolishness">fool</a> (who is unwise) and an <a href="/wiki/Ignorance" title="Ignorance">ignoramus</a> (who is uneducated/an ignorant), neither of which refers to someone with low intelligence.</p>
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<h2>Contents</h2>
</div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Etymology"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Etymology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Disability"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Disability</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#United_States_law"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">United States law</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#In_literature"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">In literature</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
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<h2> <span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">Look up <i><b><a class="external text" href="//en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/idiot">idiot</a></b></i> in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.</td>
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</table>
<p>Idiot as a word derived from the <a href="/wiki/Greek_language" title="Greek language">Greek</a> <span lang="grc" xml:lang="grc">ἰδιώτης</span>, <i>idiōtēs</i> ("person lacking professional skill", "a private citizen", "individual"), from <span lang="grc" xml:lang="grc">ἴδιος</span>, <i>idios</i> ("private", "one's own").<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> In <a href="/wiki/Latin" title="Latin">Latin</a> the word <i>idiota</i> ("ordinary person, layman") preceded the <a href="/wiki/Late_Latin" title="Late Latin">Late Latin</a> meaning "uneducated or ignorant person."<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> Its modern meaning and form dates back to <a href="/wiki/Middle_English" title="Middle English">Middle English</a> around the year 1300, from the <a href="/wiki/Old_French" title="Old French">Old French</a> <i>idiote</i> ("uneducated or ignorant person"). The related word <i>idiocy</i> dates to 1487 and may have been analogously modeled on the words <a href="/wiki/Prophet" title="Prophet">prophet</a><sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Prophecy" title="Prophecy">prophecy</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-idiot_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-idiot-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> The word has <a href="/wiki/Cognate" title="Cognate">cognates</a> in many other languages.</p>
<p>An idiot in <a href="/wiki/Athenian_democracy" title="Athenian democracy">Athenian democracy</a> was someone who was characterized by <i>self-centeredness</i> and concerned almost exclusively with <i>private</i>—as opposed to <i>public</i>—affairs.<sup id="cite_ref-Parker_5-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Parker-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> Idiocy was the natural state of ignorance into which all persons were born and its opposite, citizenship, was effected through formalized education.<sup id="cite_ref-Parker_5-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Parker-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> In Athenian democracy, idiots were <i>born</i> and citizens were <i>made</i> through education (although citizenship was also largely hereditary). "Idiot" originally referred to "layman, person lacking professional skill", "person so mentally deficient as to be incapable of ordinary reasoning". Declining to take part in public life, such as <a href="/wiki/Democracy" title="Democracy">democratic</a> <a href="/wiki/Government" title="Government">government</a> of the <a href="/wiki/Polis" title="Polis">polis</a> (city state), was considered dishonorable. "Idiots" were seen as having bad judgment in public and political matters. Over time, the term "idiot" shifted away from its original connotation of selfishness and came to refer to individuals with overall bad judgment–individuals who are "<a href="/wiki/Stupidity" title="Stupidity">stupid</a>". According to the <a href="/wiki/Bauer_lexicon" title="Bauer lexicon">Bauer-Danker Lexicon</a>, the noun ίδιωτής in ancient Greek meant "civilian" (ref Josephus Bell 2 178), "private citizen" (ref sb 3924 9 25), "private soldier as opposed to officer," (Polybius 1.69), "relatively unskilled, not clever," (Herodotus 2,81 and 7 199).<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup> The military connotation in Bauer's definition stems from the fact that ancient Greek armies in the time of total war mobilized all male citizens (to the age of 50) to fight, and many of these citizens tended to fight poorly and ignorantly.</p>
<p>In modern <a href="/wiki/English_language" title="English language">English</a> usage, the terms "idiot" and "idiocy" describe an extreme folly or stupidity, and its symptoms (foolish or stupid utterance or deed). In psychology, it is a historical term for the state or condition now called <a href="/wiki/Profound_mental_retardation" title="Profound mental retardation" class="mw-redirect">profound mental retardation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-MWdict_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MWdict-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2> <span class="mw-headline" id="Disability">Disability</span></h2>
<p>In 19th and early 20th century medicine and psychology, an "idiot" was a person with a very severe <a href="/wiki/Mental_retardation" title="Mental retardation">mental retardation</a>. In the early 1900s, Dr. <a href="/wiki/Henry_H._Goddard" title="Henry H. Goddard">Henry H. Goddard</a> proposed a classification system for mental retardation based on the Binet-Simon concept of <a href="/wiki/Mental_age" title="Mental age">mental age</a>. Individuals with the lowest mental age level (less than three years) were identified as <i>idiots</i>; <i>imbeciles</i> had a mental age of three to seven years, and <i>morons</i> had a mental age of seven to ten years.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup> The term "idiot" was used to refer to people having an IQ below 30.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> IQ, or <a href="/wiki/Intelligence_quotient" title="Intelligence quotient">intelligence quotient</a>, was originally determined by dividing a person's mental age, as determined by standardized tests, by their actual age. The concept of mental age has fallen into disfavor, though, and IQ is now determined on the basis of statistical distributions.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In current medical classification, these people are now said to have "<a href="/wiki/Mental_retardation" title="Mental retardation">profound mental retardation</a>."<sup id="cite_ref-MWdict_7-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MWdict-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2> <span class="mw-headline" id="United_States_law">United States law</span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section <b>may need to be updated</b>. Please update this section to reflect recent events or newly available information, and remove this template when finished. Please see the <a href="/wiki/Talk:Idiot" title="Talk:Idiot">talk page</a> for more information. <small><i>(December 2011)</i></small></td>
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<p>Until 2007, the California Penal Code Section 26 stated that "Idiots" were one of six types of people who are not capable of committing crimes. In 2007 the code was amended to read "persons who are mentally incapacitated."<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup> In 2008, Iowa voters passed a measure replacing "idiot, or insane person" in the State's constitution with "person adjudged mentally incompetent."<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In several U.S. states, "idiots" do not have the right to vote:</p>
<ul>
<li>Kentucky Section 145<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
<li>Mississippi Article 12, Section 241<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
<li>New Mexico Article VII, section 1<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
<li>Ohio (Article V, Section 6)<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
</ul>
<p>The constitution of the state of Arkansas was amended in the general election of 2008 to, among other things, repeal a provision (Article 3, Section 5) which had until its repeal prohibited "idiots or insane persons" from voting.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2> <span class="mw-headline" id="In_literature">In literature</span></h2>
<p>A few authors have used "idiot" characters in novels, plays and poetry. Often these characters are used to highlight or indicate something else (<a href="/wiki/Allegory" title="Allegory">allegory</a>). Examples of such usage are <a href="/wiki/William_Faulkner" title="William Faulkner">William Faulkner's</a> <i><a href="/wiki/The_Sound_and_the_Fury" title="The Sound and the Fury">The Sound and the Fury</a></i> and <a href="/wiki/William_Wordsworth" title="William Wordsworth">William Wordsworth's</a> <i><a href="/wiki/The_Idiot_Boy" title="The Idiot Boy">The Idiot Boy</a></i>. Idiot characters in literature are often confused with or subsumed within mad or lunatic characters. The most common imbrication between these two categories of mental impairment occurs in the polemic surrounding Edmund from <a href="/wiki/William_Shakespeare" title="William Shakespeare">William Shakespeare's</a> <i><a href="/wiki/King_Lear" title="King Lear">King Lear</a></i>. In <a href="/wiki/Fyodor_Dostoevsky" title="Fyodor Dostoevsky" class="mw-redirect">Fyodor Dostoevsky's</a> novel <i><a href="/wiki/The_Idiot_(novel)" title="The Idiot (novel)" class="mw-redirect">The Idiot</a></i>, the idiocy of the main character, Prince Lev Nikolaievich Myshkin, is attributed more to his honesty, trustfulness, kindness, and humility, than to a lack of intellectual ability. <a href="/wiki/Friedrich_Nietzsche" title="Friedrich Nietzsche">Nietzsche</a> claimed, in his <i><a href="/wiki/The_Antichrist_(book)" title="The Antichrist (book)">The Antichrist</a></i>, that <a href="/wiki/Jesus" title="Jesus">Jesus</a> was an idiot. This resulted from his description of Jesus as having an aversion toward the material world.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
<div class="reflist references-column-count references-column-count-2" style="-moz-column-count: 2; -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-0"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Liddell-Scott-Jones <i>A Greek-English Lexicon</i>, entries for <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Di%29diw%2Fths"><span lang="grc" xml:lang="grc">ἰδιώτης</span></a> and <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Di%29%2Fdios"><span lang="grc" xml:lang="grc">ἴδιος</span></a>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Words</i>, entry <i><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://lysy2.archives.nd.edu/cgi-bin/words.exe?idiota">idiota</a></i>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Etymonline.com, entry <i><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=prophet">prophet</a></i></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Etymonline.com, entry <i><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=prophecy">prophecy</a></i></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-idiot-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-idiot_4-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Etymonline.com, entry <i><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=idiot">idiot</a></i></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Parker-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Parker_5-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Parker_5-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Parker, Walter C. (v86 n5 p344 Jan 2005). "Teaching Against Idiocy", Bloomington: Phi Delta Kappan.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Bauer W. "English Greek Lexicon"</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-MWdict-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-MWdict_7-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-MWdict_7-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/idiocy">"idiocy"</a>. Merriam-Webster online<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/idiocy">http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/idiocy</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-09-26</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=idiocy&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Merriam-Webster+online&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.merriam-webster.com%2Fdictionary%2Fidiocy&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation" id="CITEREFZaretskyRichterEisenberg2005">Zaretsky, Herbert H.; Richter, Edwin F.; Eisenberg, Myron G. (2005), <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=7TZGYRu-_Y4C"><i>Medical aspects of disability: a handbook for the rehabilitation professional</i></a> (third edition, illustrated ed.), Springer Publishing Company, p.&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=7TZGYRu-_Y4C&amp;pg=PA346">346</a>, <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8261-7973-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8261-7973-9">978-0-8261-7973-9</a><span class="printonly">, <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=7TZGYRu-_Y4C">http://books.google.com/books?id=7TZGYRu-_Y4C</a></span></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Medical+aspects+of+disability%3A+a+handbook+for+the+rehabilitation+professional&amp;rft.aulast=Zaretsky&amp;rft.aufirst=Herbert+H.&amp;rft.au=Zaretsky%2C%26%2332%3BHerbert+H.&amp;rft.au=Richter%2C%26%2332%3BEdwin+F.&amp;rft.au=Eisenberg%2C%26%2332%3BMyron+G.&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B%5Bhttp%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D7TZGYRu-_Y4C%26pg%3DPA346+346%5D&amp;rft.edition=third+edition%2C+illustrated&amp;rft.pub=Springer+Publishing+Company&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8261-7973-9&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D7TZGYRu-_Y4C&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation" id="CITEREFRapley2004">Rapley, Mark (2004), <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=KdQS5Z_mGbQC"><i>The Social Construction of Intellectual Disability</i></a>, Cambridge University Press, p.&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=KdQS5Z_mGbQC&amp;pg=PA32">32</a>, <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-521-00529-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-521-00529-6">978-0-521-00529-6</a><span class="printonly">, <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=KdQS5Z_mGbQC">http://books.google.com/books?id=KdQS5Z_mGbQC</a></span></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Social+Construction+of+Intellectual+Disability&amp;rft.aulast=Rapley&amp;rft.aufirst=Mark&amp;rft.au=Rapley%2C%26%2332%3BMark&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B%5Bhttp%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DKdQS5Z_mGbQC%26pg%3DPA32+32%5D&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-521-00529-6&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DKdQS5Z_mGbQC&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation" id="CITEREFCruzQuaison">Cruz, Isagani A.; Quaison, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=I2FnOYgu6IsC"><i>Correct Choice of Words'&#160;: English Grammar Series for Filipino Lawyers</i></a> (2003 Edition ed.), Rex Bookstore, Inc., pp.&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=I2FnOYgu6IsC&amp;pg=PA444">444–445</a>, <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-971-23-3686-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-971-23-3686-7">978-971-23-3686-7</a><span class="printonly">, <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=I2FnOYgu6IsC">http://books.google.com/books?id=I2FnOYgu6IsC</a></span></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Correct+Choice+of+Words%27+%3A+English+Grammar+Series+for+Filipino+Lawyers&amp;rft.aulast=Cruz&amp;rft.aufirst=Isagani+A.&amp;rft.au=Cruz%2C%26%2332%3BIsagani+A.&amp;rft.au=Quaison&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B%5Bhttp%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DI2FnOYgu6IsC%26pg%3DPA444+444%E2%80%93445%5D&amp;rft.edition=2003+Edition&amp;rft.pub=Rex+Bookstore%2C+Inc.&amp;rft.isbn=978-971-23-3686-7&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DI2FnOYgu6IsC&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Vibeke Grover Aukrust (2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=oE-3bZik8rQC"><i>Learning and Cognition</i></a>. Elsevier. pp.&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=oE–3bZik8rQC&amp;pg=PA95">95–96</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-12-381438-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-12-381438-8">978-0-12-381438-8</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=oE-3bZik8rQC">http://books.google.com/books?id=oE-3bZik8rQC</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Learning+and+Cognition&amp;rft.aulast=Vibeke+Grover+Aukrust&amp;rft.au=Vibeke+Grover+Aukrust&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B%5Bhttp%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com.ph%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DoE%E2%80%933bZik8rQC%26pg%3DPA95+95%E2%80%9396%5D&amp;rft.pub=Elsevier&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-12-381438-8&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DoE-3bZik8rQC&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=pen&amp;group=00001-01000&amp;file=25-29">"Penal Code section 25-29"</a>. State of California<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=pen&amp;group=00001-01000&amp;file=25-29">http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=pen&amp;group=00001-01000&amp;file=25-29</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-09-21</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Penal+Code+section+25-29&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=State+of+California&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.leginfo.ca.gov%2Fcgi-bin%2Fdisplaycode%3Fsection%3Dpen%26group%3D00001-01000%26file%3D25-29&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Sharples, Tiffany (5 November 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1856820-2,00.html">"Ballot Initiatives: No to Gay Marriage, Anti-Abortion Measures"</a>. time.com<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1856820-2,00.html">http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1856820-2,00.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-02-26</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Ballot+Initiatives%3A+No+to+Gay+Marriage%2C+Anti-Abortion+Measures&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Sharples&amp;rft.aufirst=Tiffany&amp;rft.au=Sharples%2C%26%2332%3BTiffany&amp;rft.date=5+November+2008&amp;rft.pub=time.com&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.time.com%2Ftime%2Fpolitics%2Farticle%2F0%2C8599%2C1856820-2%2C00.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.lrc.state.ky.us/legresou/constitu/145.htm">Kentucky Section 145</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.sos.state.ms.us/pubs/constitution/constitution.asp">Mississippi Constitution of the State of Mississippi</a> See Article 12, Section 241</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://vlex.com/vid/309687">New Mexico Constitution, Article VII, section 1</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/constitution.cfm?Part=5&amp;Section=06">Ohio Constitution, Article V, Section 6</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.votesmart.org/election_ballot_measures_detail.php?ballot_id=64">Arkansas Ballot Measures&#160;: An Amendment Concerning Voting, Qualifications of Voters and Election Officers, and the Time of Holding General Elections (Amendment 1)&#160;: For the November 4, 2008 General Election</a>, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.votesmart.org">votesmart.org</a>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Friedrich_Nietzsche" title="Friedrich Nietzsche">Nietzsche, Friedrich</a> (1895). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.handprint.com/SC/NIE/antich.html"><i>The Antichrist</i></a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.handprint.com/SC/NIE/antich.html">http://www.handprint.com/SC/NIE/antich.html</a></span>. "To make a hero of Jesus! And even more, what a misunderstanding is the word 'genius'! Our whole concept, our cultural concept, of 'spirit' has no meaning whatever in the world in which Jesus lives. Spoken with the precision of a physiologist, even an entirely different word would be yet more fitting here—the word idiot."</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Antichrist&amp;rft.aulast=Nietzsche&amp;rft.aufirst=Friedrich&amp;rft.au=Nietzsche%2C%26%2332%3BFriedrich&amp;rft.date=1895&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.handprint.com%2FSC%2FNIE%2Fantich.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span><br />
(§ 29, partially quoted here, contains three words that were suppressed by Nietzsche's sister when she published The Antichrist in 1895. The words are: 'das Wort Idiot,' translated here as 'the word idiot'. They were not made public until 1931, by Josef Hofmiller. <a href="/wiki/H.L._Mencken" title="H.L. Mencken" class="mw-redirect">H.L. Mencken</a>'s 1920 translation does not contain these words.)</span></li>
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<li><a href="/wiki/File:PD-icon.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/62/PD-icon.svg/12px-PD-icon.svg.png" width="12" height="12" /></a>&#160;This article&#160;incorporates text from a publication now in the <a href="/wiki/Public_domain" title="Public domain">public domain</a>:&#160;<span class="citation book" id="CITEREFChisholm1911">Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). <i><a href="/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica_Eleventh_Edition" title="Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition">Encyclopædia Britannica</a></i> (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=%5B%5BEncyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica+Eleventh+Edition%7CEncyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica%5D%5D&amp;rft.date=1911&amp;rft.edition=11th&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/File:PD-icon.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/62/PD-icon.svg/12px-PD-icon.svg.png" width="12" height="12" /></a>&#160;This article incorporates text from a publication now in the <a href="/wiki/Public_domain" title="Public domain">public domain</a>:&#160;<span class="citation book" id="CITEREFHerbermann1913">Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). <i><a href="/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia" title="Catholic Encyclopedia">Catholic Encyclopedia</a></i>. Robert Appleton Company.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=%5B%5BCatholic+Encyclopedia%5D%5D&amp;rft.date=1913&amp;rft.pub=Robert+Appleton+Company&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Idiot"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
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<h2> <span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2>
<ul>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=idiot">Dictionary.Reference.Com</a> "Middle English, ignorant person, from Old French <i>idiote</i> (modern French idiot), from Latin <i>idiota</i>, from Greek <i>idiotès</i>, private person, layman, from <i>idios</i>, own, private."</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=idiot">"idiot"</a> at Etymonline</li>
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ravi danada
 
Jun 5, 2012

Dreamz Infra

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading"><span dir="auto">Bounce rate</span></h1>
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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><p><b>Bounce rate</b> (sometimes confused with <a href="/wiki/Exit_rate" title="Exit rate">exit rate</a>)<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> is an <a href="/wiki/Internet_marketing" title="Internet marketing">Internet marketing</a> term used in <a href="/wiki/Web_analytics" title="Web analytics">web traffic analysis</a>. It represents the percentage of visitors who enter the site and "bounce" (leave the site) rather than continue viewing other pages within the same site.</p>
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<h2>Contents</h2>
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<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Definition"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Definition</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Usage"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Usage</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Caveats"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Caveats</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
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<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Bounce_rate&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Definition">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Definition">Definition</span></h2>
<p>A bounce occurs when a web site visitor only views a single page on a website, that is, the visitor leaves a site without visiting any other pages before a specified session-timeout occurs. There is no industry standard minimum or maximum time by which a visitor must leave in order for a bounce to occur. Rather, this is determined by the session timeout of the analytics tracking software.</p>
<p><img class="tex" alt="{R_b} {{=}} left ( frac{T_v}{T_e} ight )" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/math/a/5/d/a5dbe2cfa01d91e0ac943312c3c055e8.png" /></p>
<p>where</p>
<ul>
<li>R<sub>b</sub> = Bounce rate</li>
<li>T<sub>v</sub> = Total number of visitors viewing one page only</li>
<li>T<sub>e</sub> = Total entries to page</li>
</ul>
<p>A visitor may bounce by:</p>
<ul>
<li>Clicking on a link to a page on a different web site</li>
<li>Closing an open window or tab</li>
<li>Typing a new <a href="/wiki/URL" title="URL" class="mw-redirect">URL</a></li>
<li>Clicking the "Back" button to leave the site</li>
<li>Session timeout</li>
</ul>
<p>A commonly used session timeout value is 30 minutes<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup>. In this case, if a visitor views a page, doesn't look at another page, and leaves his or her browser idle for longer than 30 minutes, they will register as a bounce. If the visitor continues to navigate after this delay, a new session will occur.</p>
<p>The bounce rate for a single page is the number of visitors who enter the site at a page and leave within the specified timeout period without viewing another page, divided by the total number of visitors who entered the site at that page. In contrast, the bounce rate for a web site is the number of web site visitors who visit only a single page of a web site per session divided by the total number of web site visits.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Bounce_rate&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Usage">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Usage">Usage</span></h2>
<p>Bounce rates can be used to help determine the effectiveness or performance of an entry page. An entry page with a low bounce rate means that the page effectively causes visitors to view more pages and continue on deeper into the web site.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>According to Inc.com article: "As a rule of thumb, a 50 percent bounce rate is average. If you surpass 60 percent, you should be concerned. If you're in excess of 80 percent, you've got a major problem."<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Interpretation of the bounce rate measure should be relevant to a website's business objectives and definitions of conversion, as having a high bounce rate is not always a sign of poor performance. On sites where an objective can be met without viewing more than one page, the bounce rate would not be as meaningful for determining conversion success. In contrast, the bounce rate of an e-commerce site could be interpreted in correlation with the purchase conversion rate, providing the bounces are considered representative of visits where no purchase was made.</p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Bounce_rate&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Caveats">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Caveats">Caveats</span></h3>
<p>While site-wide bounce rate can be a useful metric for sites with well-defined conversion steps requiring multiple page views, it may be of questionable value for sites where visitors are likely to find what they are looking for on the entry page. This type of behavior is common on <a href="/wiki/Web_portal" title="Web portal">web portals</a> and referential content sites.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> For example, a visitor looking for the definition of a particular word may enter an online dictionary site on that word's definition page. Similarly, a visitor who wants to read about a specific news story may enter a news site on an article written for that story. These example entry pages could have a bounce rate above 80% (thereby increasing the site-wide average), and they might still be considered successful due to having served their purpose.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Bounce_rate&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Landing_page" title="Landing page">Landing page</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Landing_page_optimization" title="Landing page optimization">Landing page optimization</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Internet_marketing" title="Internet marketing">Internet marketing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Web_analytics" title="Web analytics">Web analytics</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Bounce_rate&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: References">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
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<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-0"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.hmtweb.com/blog/2007/08/bounce-rate-and-exit-rate-what-is.html">HMTWeb.com "Bounce Rate vs. Exit Rate"</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Cooley, R.; B. Mobasher, J. Srivastava (1999). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cs.umn.edu/research/websift/papers/kais99.ps">"Data Preparation for Mining World Wide Web Browsing Patterns"</a> (– <sup><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&amp;lr=&amp;q=author%3ACooley+intitle%3AData+Preparation+for+Mining+World+Wide+Web+Browsing+Patterns&amp;as_publication=Journal+of+Knowledge+and+Information+System&amp;as_ylo=&amp;as_yhi=&amp;btnG=Search">Scholar search</a></sup>). <i>Journal of Knowledge and Information System</i> <b>1</b> (1): 5–32<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.cs.umn.edu/research/websift/papers/kais99.ps">http://www.cs.umn.edu/research/websift/papers/kais99.ps</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-08-25</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Data+Preparation+for+Mining+World+Wide+Web+Browsing+Patterns&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Knowledge+and+Information+System&amp;rft.aulast=Cooley&amp;rft.aufirst=R.&amp;rft.au=Cooley%2C%26%2332%3BR.&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.volume=1&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=5%E2%80%9332&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cs.umn.edu%2Fresearch%2Fwebsift%2Fpapers%2Fkais99.ps&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Bounce_rate"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span><sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span title="&#160;since April 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot" title="Wikipedia:Link rot">dead link</a></i>]</span></sup></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.google.com/adwords/learningcenter/text/38069.html">Google AdWords Learning Center - Improving Your Content and Site</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.inc.com/guides/2011/01/how-to-reduce-your-website-bounce-rate.html">How to Reduce Your Website’s Bounce Rate</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.analyticsbouncerate.com/bounce-rate-web-portals-referential-content-sites/">Search Intent: Understanding Bounce Rates of Web Portals and Referential Content Sites by Scott Offord</a></span></li>
</ol>
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<p><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.seozy.com/bouncerate-how-does-it-affect-your-seo/">Bounce Rate and your website's SEO</a></p>


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May 26, 2012

Best in Realestate

WOO HOO! The day has come–the unofficial first day (because I am currently at work for another hour) of the weekend that unofficially starts Summer. To unofficially start my weekend I went on a 4 miler this morning along the East River. It was humid and the fog was dense, but there was a slight breeze that made the conditions a little more bearable.

I felt pretty good and decided to ramp up the last two miles of my run. I ended up doing 4.01 in 33:58. Not too shabby when I was only feeling a 2 miler when I dragged my ass out of bed this morning.
ravi danada
 
May 24, 2012

Dreamz Infra Special Offers For Flats.

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<h1>AVG Anti-Virus Free Edition 2012 </h1>


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<span class="avg11-fs-17">Anti-virus and Anti-spyware</span>
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Makes sure you can’t receive or unintentionally spread even the toughest viruses or spyware.
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<span class="avg11-fs-17">Social Networking Protection</span>
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Protects you and your friends on social networks.
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Checks web pages in real time before you visit them and shows safety ratings in your search engine results list.
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<li><a href="http://www.avgsecurityaudit.com/" onclick="var s=s_gi(s_account); s.linkTrackVars='eVar67'; s.eVar67 = 'security-audit-tool-in-en'; s.tl(this,'o','security-audit-tool-in-en');" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Security Audit Tool</a><span class="menu-section-list-desc"> Complete your security audit now and receive a tailored IT security action plan covering people, policy and technology.</span></li>
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ravi danada
 
May 24, 2012

Dreamzinfra best in Realestate

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<div id="pnlTextIL" style="display:none"><p><b>Citizens of Israel are not permitted to register to trade with XForex.</b></p><p>Israeli
residences are not permitted to register for trading with Xforex.
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another nationality, then you may decide to select the country of your
nationality when registering. By accessing this website you confirm that
you are allowed under the regulations and laws of your local
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through Xforex.<br>If you are prohibited from accessing the content of
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ravi danada
 
May 24, 2012

Best Flats in Bangalore for Sale

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<h1>AVG Anti-Virus Free Edition 2012 </h1>


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<a class="download" href="http://download.cnet.com/AVG-Anti-Virus-Free-Edition-2012/3000-2239_4-10320142.html?part=dl-avg_free_us&amp;subj=dl&amp;tag=button;wwlp" onclick="setTimeout(setIframe,2000);" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><strong>Free Download <br /><span id="dwn-from">CNET Secure download</span></strong></a>
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<h2>Millions<br /> <strong>TRUST AVG</strong></h2>
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<h2>The world’s most downloaded free security software</h2>
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<li>
<span class="avg11-fs-17">Anti-virus and Anti-spyware</span>
<br />
Makes sure you can’t receive or unintentionally spread even the toughest viruses or spyware.
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<li>
<span class="avg11-fs-17">Social Networking Protection</span>
<br />
Protects you and your friends on social networks.
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<span class="avg11-fs-17">AVG LinkScanner&reg;</span>
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Checks web pages in real time before you visit them and shows safety ratings in your search engine results list.
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“…AVG Anti-Virus Free continues to offer an excellent if not perfect level of security…”
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<span class="download-icon-cnet">Editor’s Review</span>
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